Presentation on theme: "Convention & Compromise"— Presentation transcript:
1 Convention & Compromise American leaders fix the problems of the Articles of Confederation
2 Revising the Articles The Confederation was not working. In 1787, delegates from 12 states gathered in Philadelphia.The sole purpose was to revise the Articles of Confederation.
3 Economic DepressionThe U.S. went through a depression when the war ended:Unemployment increasedTrade fellLittle $ to pay foreign debtFarmers could not sell their goodsEach state printed its own $ and did not accept $ from other states
4 Shays’ RebellionFarmers unable to pay their debts had their land taken away and were imprisoned.Daniel Shays led farmers & forced the courts in Massachusetts to close.This kept the state from taking their farms.The state militia ordered farmers to stop but they refused.The militia fired, 4 rebels died
5 The Issue of SlaverySlavery was important to the plantation system in the south.The southern economy could not survive without it.In the North, free African Americans faced discrimination and were barred from public places.
6 Free BlacksVirginia issued a law called manumission that encouraged the freeing of individual enslaved persons.The abolition of slavery in the North divided the new country
7 A Call for ChangeThe American Revolution created a union of 13 states, it did not create a strong national government.Leaders demanded a reform of the Articles of ConfederationSeptember 1786, leaders met in Philadelphia to discuss trade issues and possible changes to the Articles.
8 The Effects of Shays’ Rebellion Leaders worried that the government could not control unrest and prevent violence.George Washington = not happy w/ ideas of revising the Articles of Confederation.He changed his mind after Shays’ Rebellion
9 The Constitutional Convention Many Convention in Philadelphia were well educatedJames Madison: known as the “Father of the Constitution”He was the author of the basic plan of government.
10 Organization George Washington was unanimously chosen to run meetings Each state had 1 vote on all questions.The majority vote would make decisions.
11 The Virginia PlanInstead of revising the Articles, Edmund Randolf proposed that they create a strong national government.Virginia Plan was based largely on the work of James Madison
12 What was the Virginia Plan? The plan called for a two-house legislature1) Chief Executive2) Court SystemLower house legislature elected by the peopleUpper house legislature chosen by the lower houseThe number of representatives would be proportionate to the population of each state
13 The New Jersey PlanHad a one house legislature and one vote for each state.Congress would be able to set taxes and regulate trade.Congress would elect an executive branch made up of more than one person.
14 Compromise Wins OutThe States voted for a government based on the Virginia PlanRoger Sherman proposed what came to be known as the Great Compromise.Compromise: agreement between 2 or more sides in which each side gives up a little.
15 What was the Great Compromise? 2 senators for each state.# of Reps in the HoR = state populationEqual amount # of Reps in SenateSlaves counted as three-fifths of a person.Majority vote in House and Senate needed to pass a law.Balanced powers between executive, judicial, and legislative branches
17 Objections Are RaisedWhat about slaves? Were they population or property?South said: slaves = Population (so they could get more representation)North said: Property (so they had a chance at better representation)The Three-Fifths Compromise: an enslaved person counted as three-fifths of one free person for both taxation and representation.
18 Slave TradeNorthern delegates wanted to slow and eventually stop the spread of slavery.Since the slave trade was essential to Southern states, Northerners agreed that Congress could not interfere with the slave trade until 1808.
19 Approval of the Constitution Some delegates did not want to sign the ConstitutionThey worried that without the protection of the bill of rights, the new national government might abuse its powersOnly 9 out of 13 states had to approve the Constitution