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Early National Period United States 1. John Adams In 1797, Adams takes control of a deeply divided nation Adams was brilliant, austere, stubborn and self-important.

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Presentation on theme: "Early National Period United States 1. John Adams In 1797, Adams takes control of a deeply divided nation Adams was brilliant, austere, stubborn and self-important."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early National Period United States 1

2 John Adams In 1797, Adams takes control of a deeply divided nation Adams was brilliant, austere, stubborn and self-important Disliked by even those who respected his national service.

3 John Adam’s Administration 1796-1800 Beset with problems –Had to follow Washington –Deep political divisions –Nation being dragged into war in Europe Issue of Neutral rights

4 XYZ Affair Attempts to resolve European affairs Adams sends diplomatic team to France to renegotiate old alliance with France French officials demand a bribe before negotiating Adams upset –Makes French demands public Poisons Franco-American relations Quasi-war breaks out on seas with France

5 Alien & Sedition Acts Greatest Crisis of Adams’ administration Confronted by growing critics –Some being immigrant pamphleteers –Federalist move to silence –Passes new naturalization law extended from 5 to 14 years the time to become a citizen Alien Act—allowed deportation of “dangerous” aliens

6 Alien and Sedition Act (cont.) Sedition Act—authorized prosecution of almost all public assembly and publications critical of the government Acts drew immediate criticism 18 individuals were charged under Sedition Act—10 were convicted Fails to silence critics –Republicans make it a focal point of discussion

7 Election of 1800 Alien and Sedition Acts shaped debate Republicans used “liberty” as a key phrase in debate –Effectively rally their electorate, Federalists were much less effective Jefferson wins election Adam’s acceptance of defeat establishes vital precedent of a peaceful transition of power

8 Jefferson Presidency 1 st president to begin term in new city of Washington Jefferson hoped to dismantle as much of the Federalist system as possible –During 8 years: Reduced # of gov. employees Slashed the army and navy Abolished all taxes but tariffs Paid off the national debt Sought to prevent U.S. from becoming a centralized state (anti-British sentiments)

9 Marbury vs. Madison Unable to completely end national authority Never trusted an unelected judiciary –Believed the dominance of local self-government John Marshall—strong believer in national supremacy Issue of midnight justices Established court’s power to review laws of congress and the states

10 Louisiana Purchase Jefferson forced to compromise –Believed that federal government was limited to powers outlined in the constitution U.S. long concerned about access to New Orleans—essential for western farmers –Feared French intervention in commerce –Sent envoys to France to offer to buy city –Napoleon offers entire Louisiana Territory for 15 million

11 Louisiana Purchase Doubles size of nation French presence on Western frontier ended Jefferson admits that he exceeded the constitution –Believed benefits exceeded problems –Believed he was ensuring the agricultural character of America

12 Lewis and Clark Within a year, Jefferson dispatches an expedition to explore newly acquired lands Meriweather Lewis and William Clark Objective was scientific and commercial –Discover potential of the region –Trade with Indians –Find water route to the Pacific Helped to strengthen idea that America destined to reach Pacific.

13 Foreign Entanglements Despite relative isolation, U.S. still influenced by European affairs –European wars impacted farmers, merchants, artisans Jefferson hoped to avoid foreign problems However, realities forced him to expand military at time of he was limiting power of national government

14 Barbary Pirates Preying on shipping in the Mediterranean and Atlantic –Receiving tribute from a number of countries, including the U.S. –Pasha of Tripoli increases demands—U.S. refuses—undeclared war breaks out –Jefferson sent warships to Tripoli. –Stephen Decatur –U.S. pays $60,000 for hostages

15 Franco-British War Resumes in 1803 –U.S. trade jeopardized Each side declares a blockade, seeks to deny trade with America British resumed practice of impressment USS Chesapeake

16 Embargo To Jefferson, Freedom of trade was critical –Farmers need access to markets As colonial leaders had done previously, he decides to use trade as a weapon 1807—Enacts embargo-ban on all American vessels sailing to foreign ports –Constitutional basis—power to regulate trade –Failed—few Americans willing to make necessary sacrifices –Amazing exercise of federal power U.S. trade drops 80%

17 Impact Very little effect on Britain and France Devastated American economy –New England merchants –Southern and Western Farmers Jefferson repeals Embargo in 1809, just before term expired

18 Madison Administration Primary focus was dealing with situation regarding Britain and France Madison was a great theorist –Author of constitution –Weak and indecisive leader

19 War situation When he takes office, attacks get serious Competing blockades Tries to replace Embargo with Non-Intercourse Act(1809) –Freed merchants to trade with anyone except British and French Macon’s Bill #2 (1810) –Whoever drops restricts, US would re-impose on other Madison administration was desperate

20 War Direction By 1811, appears that the policies of Jefferson and Madison have failed US looks powerless to great powers –Two choices Submit to indignities or go to war

21 War Hawks Submission was unacceptable to group of young congressmen elected in 1811. –Henry Clay of Kentucky –John C. Calhoun of South Carolina New generation of politicians –Nationalist but looked at international markets –New style of agrarian-commercialism

22 Regional Divisions Northeast—generally opposes war –Can run the blockade, make big profits South and West—hurt by blockades—no consistent markets –Support war—save national honor, progress

23 War Both British and France obnoxious –Unable to fight both Special reasons to fight British –Canada Supporting Indian unrest in Northwest –Florida Also supporting Indian unrest/haven for runaway slaves –Impressment of sailors

24 Spring 1812 Madison out of options—”painted self into a corner” Declaration of war passes a divided congress –Two days before, British had repealed all trade restrictions—coercion had worked –Essentially a war of Republicans from the South and West

25 War of 1812 Disaster Fortunately, British were pre-occupied with Napoleon Weak leadership in Washington and in the field

26 Canadian Invasion Grand plans in West quickly dissolve into a series of defeats –Surrender of Detroit –Major losses on the Niagara Frontier Queenston Heights Niagara Falls

27 Naval War British able to control the seas –American victories—small and isolated –American do control the Lake Erie Force British to abandon Detroit

28 National Divisions Much of weakness result of divisions –Southerners—little interest in Canada –Northerners—Little interest in Florida –New England—opposed to whole war Unwilling to provide troops Unwilling to make loans

29 British Offensive By 1814, British able to shift focus to America –Series of attacks Washington, Baltimore South from Canada Mississippi Delta –Initial success, then hit stalemate Agree to Treaty of Ghent—restored the status quo –Didn’t mention neutral rights, impressments –US escaped without territorial loss

30 Hartford Convention Meeting of New England representatives to discuss actions of federal government during the war Some advocate secession Many want changes to constitution to address regional issues Appear very unpatriotic Destroys Federalist Party

31 Era of Good Feeling By end of War of 1812, Federalist Party had collapsed Period of few political divisions Republicans increasingly retreating from philosophy of state’s rights –National Bank –Protective Tariff –Federally supported internal improvements

32 American System Program pushed by Henry Clay Encouraged government leadership in economic development –High protective tariff—20% increase Establish economic self-sufficiency –Established 2 nd Bank of the United States –Wanted to establish major transportation Projects Little success National Road—Only major project



35 James Monroe Hand-picked successor to Monroe Experienced, but unimaginative leader National harmony—went out of war to avoid controversy Wanted to end sectional and economic differences--fails

36 Missouri Issue Bitter controversy over admission of Missouri into union 1817—applied for statehood as a slave state 1 st state carved out of Louisiana Territory –Implications for future –Brings out northern resentments Southern control of presidency 3/5 compromise Tallmadge Amendment

37 Compromise Petition by Maine to enter union offered way out Feb 1820—Missouri Compromise –Missouri—slave state –Maine—Free state –Prohibited slavery north of southern border of Missouri Sectional crisis resolved –Foreshadows future problems


39 Foreign policy Nationalism spread to foreign affairs Independence movements in Latin America –Afraid Spain might seek to reclaim Worried about Russian interests in Oregon region Threats push US closer to Great Britain –Also wants independent America

40 Monroe Doctrine British Foreign Minister George Canning –Proposes joint statement –Monroe supports Sec. of State J.Q. Adams wants different direction –Believes US should go alone 1823—Monroe Doctrine –Opposes further colonization in Western Hemisphere –Any attempt to extend political systems to W.H. –In return, US will stay out of European affairs Little initial impact—US unable to enforce


42 John Quincy Adams Able leader—well qualified Not a politician Election of 1824 –4 way race—settled in House of Representatives –Corrupt Bargain—Henry Clay Adams faced with a hostile congress Main issue—Tariff –1828—Protective tariff passed to help get Jackson elected

43 Election of 1828 Jackson vs. Adams –1 st modern campaign –Jackson supporters use electioneering techniques Huge public rallies, torchlight parades, barbeques –Heavy mudslinging Jackson’s wife accused of bigamy Jackson’s edge—viewed a man of the people Anti-intellectualism is powerful force in American politics

44 Jackson Turns out to be one of the most forceful and dominating American presidents –Strong-willed, intolerant of opposition, unforgiving of an insult –Frontier background made his tough and resourceful but also inflexible.

45 Spoils System Makes extensive use –Appoints supporters to federal jobs –1 st president to acknowledge use and view it as acceptable Problem—some very questionable appointments—old friends and political supporters

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