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SULEKHA PATEL THE WORLD BANK Gender indicators in policy making, monitoring and evaluation: A World Bank perspective.

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Presentation on theme: "SULEKHA PATEL THE WORLD BANK Gender indicators in policy making, monitoring and evaluation: A World Bank perspective."— Presentation transcript:

1 SULEKHA PATEL THE WORLD BANK Gender indicators in policy making, monitoring and evaluation: A World Bank perspective

2 Outline of presentation Elements of gender equality Advance gender equality: business case How does the Bank measure progress? MDGs Prospective MDG indicators Gender Action Plan

3 Key Elements of Gender Equality Household Household resource and task allocations, fertility decisionsSociety Civic and political participation Economy & Markets Access to land, financial services, labor markets, technology Aggregate economic performance (poverty reduction, growth) Gender equality in rights, resources, and voice Leveling the field of opportunities Domains of choices, domains for policy

4 Framework : Key Elements of Gender Equality Ties together key elements of gender equality* In the household: increased gender equality between men and women changes the allocation of HH expenditures, resulting in a larger share of resources devoted to childrens education and health. In the market: gender inequality is reflected in unequal access to land, credit, and labor markets, and in significantly less access to new production technologies. In society: gender inequality is expressed as restrictions to womens participation in civic and political life. In addition to improving individuals lives, increased gender equality can contribute to better aggregate economic performance. *Source – WB Global Monitoring Report 2007

5 Advance Gender Equality: business case Countries are falling behind their commitment to meet the MDGs Gains in womens economic opportunities lag behind those on womens capabilities Lack of womens empowerment: Imperils growth and poverty reduction Less favourable education and health outcomes for children Rapid spread of HIV/AIDS

6 How does the Bank measure progress? HouseholdEconomy and market Society Ratio of girls to boys enrollment in primary, secondary, and tertiary education Share of women in wage employ- ment in the non- agricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education by no later than 2015 Official Indicators MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

7 MDG3 Effect on Other MDGs Gender equality and womens empowerment are channels to attaining other MDGs universal primary education (MDG2A), lower under-five mortality (MDG4A), improved maternal health (MDG5A and B), lower likelihood of contracting HIV/AIDS (MDG6A), Reduce biodiversity loss (MDG7B).

8 Limitations of the Official MDG3 Indicators Only partially measure gender equality Do not monitor key elements of gender equality (health outcomes and disparities in access to productive resources such as land, credit, and technology) Inadequate measurement of empowerment National-level indicators can veil inequalities between particular subgroups

9 How does the Bank measure progress? HouseholdEconomy and marketsSociety Test scores, male and female Gender gap in wagesPercentage voting by male, female, and ratio Proportion of women who have ever been victims of physical violence by an intimate male partner Share of women in informal wage and self-employment in nonagricultural employment Proportion of women in the executive branch Percent of employed women who have access to child care Percentage of individuals who possess basic citizenship documents, female, and ratio Business by average size and sex of owner Access to credit for women and men Land ownership by female, male, and jointly held Prospective MDG 3 Indicators

10 The Gender Action Plan Framework Addresses directly the gap between womens capabilities and economic opportunities Makes markets work for women – Identifies and implements policy measures to level playing field for women and improve policy and institutional environment for women Empowers women to compete in the markets Four markets have been identified: – Product; Land; Labour; and Financial

11 The Gender Action Plan Framework: Product Market Policy level Form womens business, purchasing, and transport associations Increase access to business services for women entrepreneurs Increase access to ICT Increase access to credit and financial services Provide business start-up grants Agency level Reduce time and monetary costs of formalising enterprises Include female-owned business and farms in supply chains Provide information to women entrepreneurs on potential export markets and trade agreements

12 The Gender Action Plan Framework: Land Market Policy level Conduct social marketing of property rights legislation Solicit womens input into legislative changes on land holding and titling Ensure womens full participation in land adjudication and registration processes Involve women and groups in local natural resource management Agency level Promote joint titling Reform laws restricting womens right to inherit or own land Co-ordinate titling with such support services as credit and training

13 The Gender Action Plan Framework: Labour Market Policy level Increase womens access to existing training programmes Ensure non-discrimination in labour intermediation services Provide quality day care and reduce their services Agency level Introduce legislation promoting womens employment (part- time work and anti- discrimination) Socialise costs of maternity leave Certify good gender practices in firms Engender public works programmes

14 The Gender Action Plan Framework: Financial Markets Policy level Support self help groups Provide gender-sensitive business services Provide market-based financial intermediation services Agency level Reform financial institutions to increase womens access to financial services Reform laws regarding rights to property Offer commercial credit lines and financial services for women

15 Access to what? Financial institutions and services

16 Barriers to access: Involuntary exclusion for users of formal financial services Price and non-price barriers associated with deposit, credit and payment services: Physical access Services being delivered in fewer and less convenient ways Eligibility Documents and other requirements to process services Affordability Fees (insufficient income, high risk) Discrimination

17 Barriers to access: Voluntary exclusion for users of formal financial services Voluntary self exclusion: No need Particularly older individuals Cultural/religious reasons May be due to lack of appropriate products Indirect access

18 Infrastructure Infrastructure increases womens access to all four markets Need to look at infrastructure in a gendered way Womens priorities are closely linked to their roles in and out of the household Different from, or in additional to, the priorities of men Potential impacts Direct impact on womens health and well-being Transmit benefits to other members of family Health Education Mixed evidence on labour force participation

19 Infrastructure modules Modules will show value-added in gendered approach to infrastructure, and indicators for tracking progress Modules available: Water and sanitation Urban Transport Mining Energy ICT

20 Example of indicators for mining sector Employment Percentage of supervisory positions held by women in mining companies Percentage of managerial positions held by women in mining companies Ratio of pay for women and men for the same type of work in mining companies Impact Percentage of women who report that access to clean water has been reduced Number of water related illnesses reported at the local health center

21 The Gender Action Plan: How does it work? Produce observable results in reasonable time frame Tailor actions to country realities+ Strengthen statistics on womens economic participation: Essential for making their contributions to the economy visible Essential for measuring results

22 Thank you

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