Presentation on theme: "Value and devalue of women’s Work in China and India ----Unanswered Three Questions Feng Yuan 2014.09.26."— Presentation transcript:
Value and devalue of women’s Work in China and India ----Unanswered Three Questions Feng Yuan 2014.09.26
Three questions As “new engine of world economy”, Why gender gap of labour force participation keep expanding? Why gender gap of income remain huge? How to turn women’s gains in education, health and political empowerment as added- value of women’s work?
Rapid economic growth Vs. Declining women’s employment rate In both China and India, both male and female labor market participation decline. But the rates of women drop more, particularly for young women. “Despite very rapid economic growth in India in recent years, we’re observing declining female labour force participation rates across all age groups, across all education levels, and in both urban and rural areas,” said ILO economist Steven Kapsos during a presentation of the report in India.
What reasons contribute most? Longer education? Why rate of male still higher? Full time house wife? Irregular worker? Male labour force participation rate (%) Female labour force participation rate (%) Male youth labour force participation rate (%) Female youth labour force participation rate (%) Male adult labour force participation rate (%) Female adult labour force participation rate (%) year ChinaIndiaChinaIndiaChinaIndiaChinaIndiaChinaIndiaChinaIndia 199184.884.972.635.077.069.378.430.588.091.870.237.0 199584.784.072.235.475.567.075.629.087.791.471.038.1 200083.182.870.733.968.564.567.726.487.190.571.537.0 200579.583.366.536.960.564.857.927.985.390.869.040.4 201077.680.863.528.657.554.652.819.483.390.866.432.0 2015p78.580.063.927.158.551.153.917.682.690.265.830.3 2018p78.279.963.427.357.650.653.117.581.989.865.030.3
China Employment rate disparity: 5.6-16 percentage points. Youngest (18-19) and elder(50+) age groups, rural women drop most. The income of women with middle school education earn about 54% of their male counterpart. Women informal workers earn 49% of their male counterpart, the gaps increased 16.5 points.
Expanding Gender Pay Gap in China The official statistic shown a trend: Women earn less and less than men’s (from near 80 % down to 67% and 56%)
Gender Pay Gap: China and India is not included IndiaChina Female-to-male ratio 0=inequality, 1=equality 19960.330.61 20010.370.65 20130.270.64 20140.350.69 Estimated Earned Income (PPP, USD)
Value and Devalue by Marriage Unmarried women earn less than married, divorced and widowed married women in both urban and rural China ; being mother with child younger than 6 can decline the income(Jiang Yongping.2013, pp 195 & 198). However, married male managers earned more than single while married female managers earned less than single, after controlling for other individual characteristics and firm variables. The total compensation was,on average, 34.1% lower for females and for males (162,400: 246,400, 2006). The compensation comprised base wage, bonus, stock options, and profit sharing. About 27.6 % of the gender pay gap is explained by the firm size (measured by the registered capital), 12.0 % by business training, about 10.7 % by marital status. (Source: Liu Xiu 090402, (Survey of Entrepreneurs in Liuzhou, Guangxi province. Sample of women 22% larger then earlier studies )
Time for Household work Time gaps for Household chore narrowed (now women 1 and 1.5 hr longer than men, daily, ten year before was 1.5 and 3+ hr longer year Urban F/M% Rural F/M% total F/M% working time F/M % 1990173.6% 232.3 % 227.3% 82.3% 2000248.8% 281.1 % 264.8% 81.5% 2010237.2% 286.0 % 260.9% 94.2%
Value about household work More people agree with “the men should focus on career and women on family” than 10 years ago, but women still spend more than double more time to do household work than male (%)20002010 urbanRuralurbanRural Male female Male (should) focus on career 44.1 36.458.9 56.852.9 44.566.9 66.1 Men are breadwinner -- 52.7 42.866.8 64.1 Male should do household 82.6 91.778.9 90.184.6 93.379.5 89.1
Gender Equality Indicators Green: top 10 Pink: middle 11 Red: bottom 10 China Overall view (2010) Human Development Index
Narrow Gender Pay Gaps Can increase women’s Pensions. lower earnings result in lower pensions, at higher risk of poverty Improve economy: Reducing barriers to female labor force participation would increase America's GDP by 9 percent, the Euro area by 13 percent and Japan's GDP by 16 percent (a study conducted by Goldman Sachs). Moreover, a World Bank study that found by eliminating discrimination against women workers and managers, productivity per worker would grow by 25 to 40 percent;Goldman SachsWorld Bank Eliminating the whole gender wage gap from 17% (in February 2009) to zero, could be worth around $93 billion or 8.5% of GDP for Australia( according to the American Association of University Women)American Association of University Women
Can we waiting for 150 year to close gender pay gap… Thank you very much for your attention!