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Language Personalities. EN TI-KRAMPOUEZH Ar mevel o komz ouzh Soaz. M. ― Salud deoc'h. Petra ho po da zebriñ? S. ― Da gentañ, ur grampouezhenn ed-du,

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Presentation on theme: "Language Personalities. EN TI-KRAMPOUEZH Ar mevel o komz ouzh Soaz. M. ― Salud deoc'h. Petra ho po da zebriñ? S. ― Da gentañ, ur grampouezhenn ed-du,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Language Personalities


3 EN TI-KRAMPOUEZH Ar mevel o komz ouzh Soaz. M. ― Salud deoc'h. Petra ho po da zebriñ? S. ― Da gentañ, ur grampouezhenn ed-du, gant ognon ha tomatez, mar plij. M. ― Mat-tre, ha petra ho po goude? S. ― Ur grampouezhenn gwinizh gant mel. M. ― Ha petra ho po d'evañ? Chistr? S. ― N'em bo ket chistr. Laezh-ribod am bo, mar plij. M. ― Kafe ho po goude? S. ― N'em bo ket. Met ur banne te am bo.


5 Kurssi koostuu eri aihepiirien teksteistä, jotka on jaettu lyhyisiin kappaleisiin. Kunkin kappaleen lopussa on ymmärtämistä testaavia monivalintatehtäviä. Kappaleisiin sisältyvät myös sanastot ja kielioppiosuudet. Yhteistä sanastoa täydentää vielä kattava yleisimpien verbien (yli 600) eri muodot sisältävä luettelo.



8 Language Personalities How the Interplay of Phonology, Phonotactics and Morpho-phonology Creates a Linguistic Aesthetic

9 “The liquid vowels of the Polynesian tongues conjure up visions of loveliness and languor, full moon and bright lagoon. Contrariwise, the gutturals of the German language sound, to a non-German, as harsh and forbidding as winter in the Black Forest. The swoops and swirls of Persian script seem, to a Westerner, as voluptuous and sensual as the quatrains of Omar Khayyám. But Goethe wrote tender and lyrical word-music in German, and Persian is prosaically utilitarian for keeping the accounts of Iranian oil companies. The personality of a language, like that of a man, is the sum of many things not always apparent to the casual eye or ear.” — Gary Jennings, Personalities of Language

10 “While the national language of a people has its own personality, a Sprachgefühl distinct from even closely related tongues, it is at the same time a complex of sublanguages—regional dialects, trade jargons and the like—each of which has its own idiosyncrasies. Take a New York stockbroker and an Alabama share- cropper…or for that matter, any teen-ager and his grandfather. Each pair speaks one national language, but with worlds-apart difference.”

11 — Džíčet? — Nàà. — Tskwît. — Wadžavin máin? — Haubau’tái? — Kêj. ― Did you eat yet? ― No. ― Let’s go eat. ― What did you have in mind? ― How about Thai? ― OK. (SBA) Supposedly she’s an heiress or something like that. (Teen) She’s like s’posed to be a fucking heiress or some shit.

12 Phonoaesthetics Phonasthetics is the reason that Aragorn, having defeated the evil lord of Mordor, becomes King of the West and takes the name Elessar Telcontar, rather than having defeated the evil lord of Ailuanyemarë and being crowned under the name Kratchmurg Brogzdoodle.


14 Qui a dit que les chiens ne pouvaient pas apprendre à parler?

15 ççççç w ç w ç w ç w ç w ůůůůůůš w š w š w š w š w š w ššššššçççç w ç w ç w pššššššçççççççkšššššssss

16 noon sum pa frond Vaughn deer day parole say ma new poo come bun we Noon sum pa frond say ma new poo Vaughn deer day parole come bun we. Nous ne sommes pas français, ma nous pouvons dire des paroles comme “bonne nuit.”

17 te heure ne (n’) Aix pleurent heure y eu haute ou cette à août tout pis comme somme faim me sou est-ce? Y eu haute ou cette à août tout pis comme somme faim me sou est-ce te heure n’Aix pleurent heure. You ought to set out to become some famous Western explorer.

18 Ailles ou ans tout crié te Cannes langue tout.

19 CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG Fundamental questions re phoneme inventories: Distribution of front vowels vs. back vowels Front vowels: To round or not to round? / 2, 9, Y, y / Schwa or no schwa? /j/ and /w/ onsets (rising diphthongs) after consonants “Guttural” sounds? / x, q, X, R, R\, H / Affricates or no affricates? Glottal stop? Secondary articulations or not? palatalization, labialization, gemination, rhotacization, pharyngealization, ejectivization, aspiration, nasalization Exotic phonemes: /K/ /M\/

20 CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG Phonotactic Patterns and Constraints Frequency of front vs. back vowels; should I have vowel harmony? Frequency of rounded front vowels Frequency of /j/ and /w/ onsets following consonants Frequency of sibilants and other fricatives Syllable Structure: CV vs. CVC vs. CCVCC, etc. Ratio of open syllables to closed syllables

21 Vowels: Diphthongs? Dyssyllabic vowel conjuncts? Allophony: Ubykh has 10 or 11 audible vowel phones but only two vowel phonemes. Consonants: Key concept is phonetic assimilation Complexity and variety of consonant clusters CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG

22 Influence of semivowels: diphthongs Heterogenous consonant conjuncts, e.g., septiembre – settembre – setembre Effect of liquids: Latin root clam-  cllam-, llam-,cham- Metathesis and apocope, e.g., pericolo – peligro – perigo CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG

23 Morpho-phonology: Reduplication, vowel loss (syncope, apocope, aphaeresis), epenthesis Vocalic mutation: umlaut/ablaut, diphthongization, dyssyllabification Consonantal mutation: nasal, rhotic, lateral, fricativization, voicing/devoicing, gemination Sandhi and juncture rules: assimilation again Stress shifts Tone shifts / tone sandhi CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG

24 ir ‘to go’= ( )-ir = ( ) + INFINITIVE yendo ‘going’= ( )-iendo = ( ) + GERUND id ‘go!’= ( )-id = ( ) + 2 nd PLURAL IMPERATIVE venir ‘to come’ ven ‘come!’= ven-( )= ‘come’ + 2 nd SG. IMPERATIVE

25 “¡Ven!” “¡ !”

26 Apo ket olua taraskentel brihaprai. Ámpyë hêth olwae tarasentela periorië. Happói yeutta ööhlü traθkãčeł bžöfré.

27 Apo ket olua taraskentel brihaprai. P h o’ qetlh ûrwagh třašqetnálh gridzo’přââ. Wepp’wa hé’èeyat ówàay t’alàaskwenné’ew i’lispwa’hàay. Can you figure out the steps to get to this one?

28 Verdurian – Mark Rosenfelder So hepdën pirei esë Piro esë e fascotene uestu. E so sanno Buyelei, im dáluan Verdúrë. Eluá, mun racontretu, er lelmo tal fascotene e. Scúreden, zet ečite fruece er hicete soem bouem pro utron. Eššane ti-velec atüčy velne ana is can nočín. Širden, rihe soa dumora domei cum hozënán taë er miran esë. Oce lyö faše er mis dy eu trodonecî, dy e gašul uestu, dy deve vagir soi ďiteli com precun feyämán. Nikto řo nime cuesan eta so lešel šualië, escatelië er vinei lië.

29 amman îar by David Bell i rîellisse életh an alanin erthendelon. The girl kissed him. alan életh an nerin erhiron narnen. He told me a story. alan életh áni dais cûos erechöiron i daurar. He killed the tiger with a bow in the forest.

30 Minhast by Nick Campanilla Phonology: Egyptian Colloquial Arabic, Persian, Akkadian, Korean. Grammar/Syntax: Iroquoian, Ainu, Yupik, Georgian, Arabic, Persian, Basque, Tagalog, Ilocano

31 Rrldhla by Tom Corcoran Estyesh jye lhrrln nal chrr nrr rrpludh egeik lrrzbagrrn: rmp rhaolh, jye mrlelhrthr nrr ye'rr tu zdhu estyesh tu rrshle. Estyesh na m'mrlelhrthr rngrrl trr oimrrzdhye kla chrr'r la'rrstae'in, estyesh na m'zboi kla trr rgya chrr'r la'rrstae'in.

32 Hwaerd Raaz by Durandal Brytting Hwa! C'prex'rraa, b'lac drrang'loc fece jonte, cadz'dz' kloc flec ruc gorrontruk te borgarj farex. You smell dreadful, as if you have spent the last weeks rolling around in rotting camel corpses and the excrement of elephants. Hwa! Barc'gl þutte ruc an tomp el c'lodz, þu j'lep j'mekrunt. Drown yourself in a vat of mud, you worthless sack of fat. Hwa! Gowecar spoce p'fπ dzamae un þun blec. Your hair frightens little children.

33 Qþyn|gài by Henrik Theiling

34 Phonoaesthetics & Music Suitability of phonotactical patterns to the type of music, e.g., –Samba and Brazilian Portuguese –Soukous and Lingala –Mbalax and Wolof

35 Phonoaesthetics & Music On the Conlang front: –Christian Vander’s Magma and Kobaian

36 Phonoaesthetics & Music Poor “fit” between music and language, e.g., –Rap/hip-hop and French –Renaissance polyphonic liturgical music and Latin Loquebantur variis linguis apostoli, alleluia. Magnalia Dei, alleluia.

37 Phonoaesthetics & Music The Ultimate Language for Song



40 Po vdes nga etja pranë një burimi, Kur zjarri ndizet, dhëmb mbi dhëmb kërcet, Djeg zhegu, dridhet buza nga thëllimi, Në vendin tim jam si në vend të shkretë. Si krimb i çveshur, veshur porsi mbret, Mes lotësh qeshem dhe me shpresa rri, Mua më jep zemër veç dëshpërimi i zi. Dëfrehem dhe asgjë nuk më gëzon. I fortë jam — pa forcë, pa fuqi. Kudo më presin, gjithëkush më zbon.

41 Language Personalities

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