Presentation on theme: "Phonological Development Chapter 3. Definitions Articulation: speech sound production; actually saying the sounds of speech; placement of the articulators."— Presentation transcript:
Phonological Development Chapter 3
Definitions Articulation: speech sound production; actually saying the sounds of speech; placement of the articulators Phonology: study of the sound system and how the sounds produced are specifically combined to create and signify meaning
English Speech Sounds And Sound Patterns A phone is a sound made by the vocal tract, and may or may not be a sound for meaningful speech. A phoneme is a sound produced in order to accomplish meaningful speech.
Each speech sound is represented by a symbol. The system of written speech symbols is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
English Speech Sounds And Sound Patterns Distinctive Features –Distinctive features are used to classify and to describe the speech sounds of a language.
Major Sound Classes 1. Vowels 2. Consonants –Classified by 3 characteristics: 1. The place of articulation 2. The manner of articulation 3. The presence or absence of voicing
Classification of Consonants Labiodental Interdental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Phonotactic Constraints Are the permissible sequences of sounds in a language –English words do not begin with ng –Some clusters are not used at the beginning of words- /lp/ in help and /rt/ as in sport
Suprasegmentals Are parts of the phonological system that extend beyond individual sounds. –Examples- stress and intonation patterns
Productions During The Prelinguistic Period
Productions During The Prelinguistic Period Productions During The Prelinguistic Period A. Stage 1- Reflexive Vocalizations (Birth – Two Months) –1. Reflexive vocalizations Cries, coughs, grunts –2. Nonreflexive vocalizations Cooing (vowel-like sounds) B. Stage 2-Cooing and Laughter (Two – Four Months) –1. Cooing or gooing sounds –2. Laughter & chuckles appear
Productions During The Prelinguistic Period (Cont) Productions During The Prelinguistic Period (Cont) C. Stage 3 Vocal Play (Four to Six Months) Vocal play Discovery of articulators Characterized by very loud, very soft sounds and very high, very low sounds, and sustained vowels
Productions During The Prelinguistic Period (cont) Productions During The Prelinguistic Period (cont) D. Stage 4- Canonical Babbling (Six – Ten Months) –1. Canonical babbling The child produces consonant-vowels syllables with adult-like intonation- mama dada Reduplicated babbles (strings of identical syllables, dadada) Variegated babbles (syllable strings with varying consonants and vowels, like babegado)
Productions During The Prelinguistic Period (cont) Productions During The Prelinguistic Period (cont) E. Stage 5- Jargon Stage (Ten Months And Older) –Jargon-form of babbling with conversational intonation. Cross-cultural evidence suggest that all infants seem to pass through the same stages of vocal development.
Patterns of Development: General Patterns of Development: General General Characteristics –1. Voiceless consonants typically emerge first –2. /a/ is typically the first vowel to emerge (then /i/ and /u/) –3. Sounds are easier to learn in the initial position than the final position
Words/Protowords Protowords are consistent sound patterns used in consistent situations to indicate a childs want/need. The protowords are not always recognizable to the adult form; but then through reinforcement and continued practice a child will start forming real words.
Adult-Like Pronunciations A child goes from protowords easily to real words and how they do it is hard to explain. Researchers look at several things to try and explain it. -regularity of protoword production (Children develop systematic approaches to reproduction of words)
Regularity of Production Attempts Perception Suprasegmental-segmental interaction (stress) Assimilation Rule discovery
Phonological Error Patterns Phonological Error Patterns Phonological Processes are: –The error patterns that result from childrens early attempts to produce words, while they are still learning to control their articulatory apparatus.
Phonological Error Patterns Phonological Error Patterns A. Feature Changes –Voicing (devoicing) or place of articulation (fronting/backing)- Saying gat instead of cat or tat for cat B. Cluster Reductions –Consonant clusters are difficult sounds for young speakers; thus many children leave out one of the sounds. tore for store
Phonological Error Patterns Phonological Error Patterns C. Omitting Unstressed Syllable (Syllable Reduction) –For example: mato for tomato D. Assimilation Errors- –Changing a sound in a word to make it more similar to an adjacent or nearby sound in that word or neighboring word, e.g., pronouncing greenbeans as greembeans.
Phonological Error Patterns Phonological Error Patterns Assimilation (continuation) Assimilation may also involve manner of production –A child may make initial consonants nasal if the final consonant is nasal. means for beans nance for dance mump for bump
Cross-cultural Differences in Phonological Development Children who speak other languages such as Spanish, Japanese, and Finish may use different strategies and phonological patterns from children learning English.
Phonological Development By three years of age, most children are able to pronounce all vowel sounds and most consonants in their language, although they still make many errors. Consonants such as liquids and fricatives are likely to be in error even at 4or 5. Consonant clusters, especially in initial- word position, are not mastered until age 7 or 8.
Completion of Phonetic Inventory By 7 yrs of age, most children have acquired the entire phonetic inventory.
Completion of Phonetic Inventory Reasons why childrens speech does not sound like an adults even after acquisition of the phonetic inventory: –Children speak slower and with greater variability in pronunciation and timing. –Childrens voices are higher –Children may adopt speech styles that are used by their group
Development of English Morphophonology Morphophonology- The rules governing sound changes that accompany the combination of morphemes in a language. e.g. native/nationality, divine/divinity (here there is a sound change in the pronunciation of the stem of the word)
Development of English Morphophonology Between 7;0 and 12;0, the child learns more complex derivational structures and morphophonological rules.
Class Activity Describe the phonological error. What phonological patterns is the child using? 1. gug for bug 2. doad for toad 3. pandate for pancake 4. loon for balloon 5. pill for spill