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Unit 2 The sounds of English. Review Review What are the major defining features that natural languages possess? What are the major defining features.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 The sounds of English. Review Review What are the major defining features that natural languages possess? What are the major defining features."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2 The sounds of English

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4 Review Review What are the major defining features that natural languages possess? What are the major defining features that natural languages possess?

5 Major contents 3.1 Linguistics and its branches 3.1 Linguistics and its branches 3.2 Vowels and consonants 3.2 Vowels and consonants 3.3 Phones, phonemes, and allophones 3.3 Phones, phonemes, and allophones 3.4 Phonological rules 3.4 Phonological rules 3.5 English syllables 3.5 English syllables 3.6 Stress, tone, and intonation 3.6 Stress, tone, and intonation

6 3.1 Linguistics and its branches In 1916, Ferdinand de Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics was published, which marked the beginning of modern linguistics. In 1916, Ferdinand de Saussure’s Course in General Linguistics was published, which marked the beginning of modern linguistics.

7 Summary Traditional linguistics Modern linguistics Traditional linguistics Modern linguistics parole langue parole langue written language spoken language written language spoken language diachronic synchronic diachronic synchronic prescriptive descriptive prescriptive descriptive atomism structuralism atomism structuralism particularity universality particularity universality individuality individuality

8 Branches of linguistics Core branches: phonetics, phonology, semantics, syntax, (pragmatics) phonetics, phonology, semantics, syntax, (pragmatics) Peripheral branches (hyphenated ones) : socio-linguistics, psycho-linguistics, neuro- linguistics, etc. applied linguistics: language testing, stylistics, discourse analysis, text linguistics, computation linguistics, etc. language testing, stylistics, discourse analysis, text linguistics, computation linguistics, etc.

9 Phonetics vs. phonology The study of sounds used in speech (i.e. speech sounds) falls under the scope of both phonetics and phonology. The study of sounds used in speech (i.e. speech sounds) falls under the scope of both phonetics and phonology. Phonetics deals mainly with the characteristics of human speech sounds and sound-making, provides methods for the description, classification, and transcription of the speech sounds. Phonetics deals mainly with the characteristics of human speech sounds and sound-making, provides methods for the description, classification, and transcription of the speech sounds. Phonology is concerned with the exploration of the patterns governing sound combinations. Phonology is concerned with the exploration of the patterns governing sound combinations.

10 Branches of phonetics a. articulatory phonetics, which studies speech organs and how speech sounds are made (articulated) by the vocal organs. [our major concern] b. acoustic phonetics, which studies the physical properties of speech sounds. c. auditory phonetics, which studies the perception of speech sounds.

11 3.2 vowels and consonants In pronouncing consonants, the airstream from the lungs through the mouth is totally or partially obstructed somewhere along the path. In pronouncing consonants, the airstream from the lungs through the mouth is totally or partially obstructed somewhere along the path. In pronouncing vowels, the airstream is not obstructed anywhere along the path. In pronouncing vowels, the airstream is not obstructed anywhere along the path.

12 a. Functionally, vowels are the basis of syllables. b. Physically, vowels are musical. c. Articulatorily, for vowels, airstream is not obstructed, and speech organs are tense.

13 Discuss: P. 38 No. 1

14 Classification of English vowels Criteria i) the height of tongue raising(high, mid, low) ii) the position of the highest part of the tongue(front, central, back) iii) the degree of lip-rounding (rounded, unrounded) iv) long or short v) tense or lax

15 P. 28 Figure 2.2

16 Vowel description /i:/: high, front, unrounded, long, tense /i:/: high, front, unrounded, long, tense /i/: high, front, unrounded, short, lax /i/: high, front, unrounded, short, lax / α :/: low, back, unrounded, long, tense /c:/: mid, back, rounded, long, tense /  /: mid, central, unrounded, lax /  :/: mid, central, unrounded, long, tense Practice: Describe the sound /u:/and / æ /.

17 /u:/ : high, back, rounded, tense, long /u:/ : high, back, rounded, tense, long / æ /: low, front, unrounded, lax / æ /: low, front, unrounded, lax

18 Classifying English consonants criteria i) manner of articulation(degree of obstruction: complete, partial or a mere narrowing) ii) place f articulation(the parts of vocal tongue involved in the production)

19 P. 29 Table 2.2

20 3.3 Phones, phonemes, and allophones Phonology is the study of sound patterns of language( i.e. how sounds are arranged to form meaningful units) and the function of each sound. It reveals what are the possible combinations of sounds in a language and explains why certain words take the form they do. Phonology is the study of sound patterns of language( i.e. how sounds are arranged to form meaningful units) and the function of each sound. It reveals what are the possible combinations of sounds in a language and explains why certain words take the form they do.

21 Phone 音素 phone: the smallest perceptible discrete segment of sound in a stream of speech phone: the smallest perceptible discrete segment of sound in a stream of speech i) phonetic unit ii) not distinctive of meaning iii) physical as heard or produced iv) marked with [ ]

22 Phoneme 音位 the minimal unit in the sound system of a language. With phonemes, we establish the patterns of organization within the infinitely large number of sounds. Each language can be shown to operate with a relatively small number of phonemes (15-80). No two languages have the same phonemic system. the minimal unit in the sound system of a language. With phonemes, we establish the patterns of organization within the infinitely large number of sounds. Each language can be shown to operate with a relatively small number of phonemes (15-80). No two languages have the same phonemic system.

23 Phoneme 音位 i) phonological unit ii) distinctive of meaning iii) abstract, not physical iv) marked with / /. Discuss: P. 33 No. 1

24 Three requirements for identifying minimal pairs: Three requirements for identifying minimal pairs: 1) different in meaning; 1) different in meaning; 2) only one phoneme different; 3) the different phonemes occur in the same phonetic environment. Minimal set: pat, mat, bat, fat, cat, hat, etc. Minimal set: pat, mat, bat, fat, cat, hat, etc.

25 Allophone 音位变体 allophone: phonic variants/realizations of a phoneme allophone: phonic variants/realizations of a phoneme A phoneme is realized as allophone 1+allophone 2+…. A phoneme is realized as allophone 1+allophone 2+…. e.g. /p/=[ p h ] + [ p ] + [ p ¬ ] (unreleased) /l/ = [ l ] + [ ł ] /l/ = [ l ] + [ ł ]

26 Discuss PP PP No. 2 No. 4 No. 2 No. 4

27 3.4 Phonological rules Phonological patterning is rule-governed. [blik] and [kilb], though not found in English, can be possible combinations, while [kbil] or [lkib] cannot. Sequential rules are those that account for the combination of sounds in a particular language. They are language-specific, as in the following cases: Phonological patterning is rule-governed. [blik] and [kilb], though not found in English, can be possible combinations, while [kbil] or [lkib] cannot. Sequential rules are those that account for the combination of sounds in a particular language. They are language-specific, as in the following cases: * [tlait] [iltrit] * [tlait] [iltrit]

28 Sequential rule If three consonants should cluster together at the beginning of a word, the combination should follow the order/sequence below: If three consonants should cluster together at the beginning of a word, the combination should follow the order/sequence below: a. The first phoneme must be /s/ a. The first phoneme must be /s/ b. The second phoneme must be /p/, /t/ or /k/ b. The second phoneme must be /p/, /t/ or /k/ c. The third phoneme must be /l/, /r/, or /w/. spring, string, squirrel, split, screen c. The third phoneme must be /l/, /r/, or /w/. spring, string, squirrel, split, screen

29 Consonant clusters in English at the initial position: Question: What about the consonant cluster in the final position?

30 Assimilation rule A sound may change by assimilating/copying a feature of a sequential/neighboring sound, e.g. impossible, irresistible, illegal [in-] A sound may change by assimilating/copying a feature of a sequential/neighboring sound, e.g. impossible, irresistible, illegal [in-] PP No. 5 PP No. 5 Question: What other examples? Question: What other examples? sink /since sink /since pan cake pan cake sun glasses sun glasses five past seven five past seven has to has to

31 Deletion rule A sound may be deleted even though it may be orthographically represented. A sound may be deleted even though it may be orthographically represented. P. 35 No. 7 P. 35 No. 7

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33 3.5 English Syllables syllable onset rime nuclear coda consonant(s) vowel consonant(s)

34 3.6 Stress, tone, and intonation Segmental phonology Segmental phonology Suprasegmental phonology Suprasegmental phonology Suprasegmental phonemes: stress, tone and intonation stress, tone and intonation

35 Stress Word stress/sentence stress Word stress/sentence stress Primary stress/secondary stress Primary stress/secondary stress Stress of compounds: Stress of compounds: ‵ blackbird / black ‵ bird; ‵ blackbird / black ‵ bird; ‵ greenhouse / green ‵ house ‵ greenhouse / green ‵ house Sentence stress Sentence stress Depending on the relative importance of the words; contrastive stress Depending on the relative importance of the words; contrastive stress

36 Practice Mark the stress pattern for the following two sentences: Mark the stress pattern for the following two sentences: a. Jane is a good student that everybody likes. b. You use “ the ”, not “ a ”, before the name of a musical instrument.

37 Tone ( 声调) Different rates of vibration produce different frequencies, which are termed as different pitches. Pitch variations are distinctive of meaning. Different rates of vibration produce different frequencies, which are termed as different pitches. Pitch variations are distinctive of meaning. In some languages like Chinese, pitch variations are called tones. Languages using tones are tone languages. In some languages like Chinese, pitch variations are called tones. Languages using tones are tone languages.

38 Intonation When pitch, stress and length variations are tied to the sentence, they combine to become known as intonation. When pitch, stress and length variations are tied to the sentence, they combine to become known as intonation. Three major types of English intonation: a. falling tone/tune a. falling tone/tune b. rising tone/tune b. rising tone/tune c. fall-rise tone/tune c. fall-rise tone/tune

39 Practice Read the following paragraph, using the right intonation. Do you know how much college students sleep a night? Research finds that they sleep an average of six to seven hours a night. Last month, the University of Michigan held a national conference on sleep, stress, depression and college students. It was concluded that sleep deprivation can hurt academic performance and increase stress.

40 Assignments: Find (or even invent) a story or joke created on phonetic basis. Find (or even invent) a story or joke created on phonetic basis. P. 39 No. 3,4 P. 39 No. 3,4 P. 40 No. 7 P. 40 No. 7


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