The phonic medium of language Speech is more basic than writing. Reasons? Linguists studies the speech sounds.
Phonetics Definition: The study of the phonic medium of language; it is concerned with all the sounds that occur in the world ’ s languages.
Three branches of phonetics articulatory phonetics: study of the sounds from the speaker ’ s point of view auditory phonetics: study of the sounds from the hearer ’ s point of view acoustic phonetics: study of sound waves
Organs of speech The pharyngeal cavity — the throat The oral cavity — the mouth The nasal cavity — the nose
The pharyngeal cavity Glottis, larynx, and vocal cords voicing
The oral cavity Speech organs: tongue, uvula, soft palate (velum), hard palate, teeth ridge (alveolus), the teeth and the lips The tongue is the most flexible and is responsible for most modificaitions.
Orthographic representation of speech sounds Broad and narrow transcriptions IPA
Classification of speech sounds Vowels consonants
Classification of English consonants Manner of articulation Stops (plosives), fricatives, affricates, liquids, nasals, glides
Classification of English consonants Place of articulation Bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, palatal velar, glottal
Classification of English vowels Highest part of the tongue: Front, central, and back Openness of the mouth: close, semi- close, semi-open, open Shape of the lips: rounded, unrounded Length of the sound: long, short State of the larynx: tense, lax Monophthongs and diphthongs
Suprasegmental features Stress Sentence stress and word stress Tone 赵元任作：石室诗士施氏，嗜狮，誓食十狮。施氏时时适市视狮。 十时，适十狮适市。是时，适施氏适市。氏视是十狮，恃矢势， 使是十狮逝世。氏拾是十狮尸，适石室。石室湿，氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭，氏始试食是十狮。食时，始识是十狮，实十石狮尸。试 释是事。 Intonation