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1 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features CSD 232 Descriptive Phonetics Distinctive Features Eulenberg/Murrell Spring 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features CSD 232 Descriptive Phonetics Distinctive Features Eulenberg/Murrell Spring 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features CSD 232 Descriptive Phonetics Distinctive Features Eulenberg/Murrell Spring 2008

2 2 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Phonological Analysis A Phonological Analysis consists of the following elements: –List of the phonemes of a language –Classification system for categorizing the phonemes –Phonotactics - positional and sequential occurrences of phonemes within a language –List of the allophonic variations for each of the phonemes

3 3 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Alternative Classification Systems For Describing and Categorizing Phonemes Classical phonetic features of place and manner, and voicing Distinctive Features

4 4 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Classical Phonetic Features /p / specified using articulatory descriptors: / p / = voiceless bilabial stop

5 5 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Distinctive Features /p / described as a bundle of features [-Vocalic] [+Consonantal] [-Sonorant] [-Coronal] [+Anterior] [-High] [- Low] [- Back] [- Rounded] [- Distributed] [- Nasal] [- Lateral] [- Continuant] [+Tense] [- Voiced] [-Strident]

6 6 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Distinctive Feature Theory Roman Jakobson –Prague School of Linguistics (Pre-WWII) –Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard University Gunnar Fant –KTH - Royal Technical Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Morris Halle –Masschusetts Institute of Technology

7 7 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Uses for Distinctive Features To specify a phoneme To specify a class of phonemes To describe the set of speech sounds used in a particular language or dialect To write concise rules of phonetic change To characterize a speech disorder –e.g. substitution, often involving a change of feature)

8 8 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Distinctive Features Features are binary (+ or - values) Each speech sound may be described as a “bundle” of features Each member of every pair of phones is distinguished from the other member by at least one feature value Features are universal, but a given language may use a subset of features as distinctive

9 9 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Features (*=Original Jakobson, Fant & Halle features) *Vocalic/Nonvocalic *Consonantal/Nonconsonantal Sonorant/Obstruent Rhotic/Nonrhotic (vowels) Advanced/Nonadvanced (vowels and diphthongs) Front/Nonfront (vowels) Coronal/Noncoronal [=*Acute/Grave] Anterior/Nonanterior [=*Compact/Diffuse] (consonants)

10 10 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Features, continued (*=Original Jakobson, Fant & Halle features) High/Nonhigh Low/Nonlow Back/Nonback

11 11 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Features, continued (*=Original Jakobson, Fant & Halle features) Rounded/Nonrounded (*Flat/Plain) Distributed/Nondistributed *Nasal/nonnasal Lateral/Nonlateral

12 12 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Features, concluded (*=Original Jakobson, Fant & Halle features) *Continuant/Stop *Tense/lax (vowels) *Voiced/voiceless *Strident/Nonstrident (consonants)

13 13 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Redundancy Rules All vowels in English are [+ Voiced] All [-Voiced] sounds are [+Consonantal], [-Nasal], [-Sonorant] and [-Vocalic] [+Anterior] sounds are [-Distributed] Sounds that are both [-Continuant] and [+Anterior] are [-Strident] [-Coronal] sounds are [-Lateral]

14 14 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features With Redundancy eliminated /p/= [-Voiced] [-Continuant] [+Anterior] [-Coronal]

15 15 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Features Used to Define A Class Class of “Stop Consonants” /p,b,t,d,k,g/: [+Consonantal] [-Vocalic] [-Continuant] [-Nasal] [-Distributed]

16 16 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Concept of “Complement” A B A is the complement of B B is the complement of A A “complements” B. A + B = whole

17 17 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Complementary Distribution aspirated /p/ in syllable initial position “pot” [ p(et ] non-aspirated after /s/ “spot” [ sp)et ]

18 18 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Free Variation “cigarette” - stress on first or last syllable “economics” - first vowel sound / i / or / 2 / aspiration of final /p/ in “pop”

19 19 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Phonotactic Rules Some languages permit only CV syllables English has consonant clusters “sixths” Some languages permit eng (or engma) [ a ] as first sound in a word If a word starts with three consonants, the first must be /s/

20 20 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Levels of Structure Phone Phoneme Morpheme Word Phrase Sentence Paragraph

21 21 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Phonological Rules Sound Changes Example: “write” / re]t / “writing” / re]ú8a / / t / becomes / ú / when it occurs between a preceding vowel and a following non-stressed vowel

22 22 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Using Distinctive Features To Indicate A Sound Change Rule [-Voiced]  [+Voiced] / + Vocalic -Consonantal +Coronal +Anterior --------- -Continuant -Nasal +Vocalic -Consonantal -Stress

23 23 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Example of a Substitution Rule / c /  / s / A common substitution made by children “shoe” pronounced as “Sue”

24 24 CSD 232 Spring 2008 Distinctive Features Feature Representation of Rule -Anterior +High  + Anterior -High / + Consonantal + Coronal - Nasal - Low ------------- +Strident -Voiced


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