21. Missing Main Verb S V Complement Remember that every English sentence must have a subject and a main verb. (A sentence may or may not have an auxiliary verb.)SVComplementThe sound of the dryerArizonaShebothershasismy concentration.a very dry climate.in the her office.
32. Verbs that require an infinitive in the complement. Remember that the following verbs require an infinitive for a verb in the complement.agree decide hesitate need refuse appeardemand hope offer seem arrange deserveintend plan tend ask expect learnprepare threaten claim fail manage pretendwait consent forget mean promise wantEx:-He wanted to speak with me.-We demand to know our status.-They didn’t plan to buy a car.-The weather tends to improve in May.
43. Verbs that require an –ing form in the complement. The following verbs require an –ing from for a verb in the complement.admit complete deny appreciate consider discuss avoid delay enjoy finish practice risk keep quit stop mention recall suggest miss recall suggest tolerate postpone regret understandEX:He enjoys traveling by plane.She is considering not going.I miss watching the news when I am traveling.She mentions stopping at EI Paso in her letter.
54. Verbs phrase that require an –ing form in the complement. approve of do not mind keep onbe better off forget about look forward tocan’t help get through object tocount on insist to think ofEx:She forgot about canceling her appointment.Let’s go to the movie when you get though studying.We can’t help wondering why she left.I have been looking forward to seeing it.We wouldn’t mind waiting.
65. Problems with Used to and Be used to Consider the following examples:- He used to live in the country.- He was used to living in the country.- She was used to getting up early.- She was used to speaking in public.- I used to have a remarkable car.
76. Problem with ‘Had better’ and ‘Would rather’ Remember that had better and would rather are similar to a modal. Although had appears to be a past, had better expressed advice for the future, would rather expressed preference in present and future time.Ex:- You had better take Chemistry 600 this semester.- You had better not go to a movie this weekend.- Greg would rather have a Pepsi than a beer.- If you don’t mind, I would rather not go.- She told me that she’d rather not serve on the committee.Shad betterverb word (V.1)
87. Problem with ‘would rather that’ It introduces a clause.I would rather that you drove.I would rather that you didn’t drive.I would rather that you didn’t do that.Diane would rather that her husband didn’t work so hard.Swould ratherthatV (past)
98. Problem with Negative Imperatives Compare two sentences below:Please don’t tell anyone.Would you please not tell anyone.Please don’t be late.Would you please not worry.Would you please not smoke.Note: Avoid using don’t after would you please.
109. Problem with causatives Causatives are main verbs that cause people or machines to do things or cause things to change. They are listed below in order of the most forceful to the least forceful.MakeGetHaveLetHelp
11MAKE The person cause it to happen by forcing another person to do it. SOMEONEVERB WORDHis mothermadehimtakehis medicine.SOMETHINGIthe machinework
12GET A person doesn’t perform an action directly. S GET SOMEONE INFINITIVELet’sgetAnnto gowith us.SOMETHINGPARTICIPLEour carfixedfirst.
13HAVE A person doesn’t perform an action directly. S HAVE SOMEONE VERB WORDMy teacherhadusgiveoral report.SOMETHINGPARTICIPLEIwant to havethis bookrenewed,please.
14LET A person gives permission for another to do it. S LET SOMEONE VERB WORDHis motherlethimgoto school.SOMETHINGIam lettingthis machinecool.
15HELP A person assists another person to do it. S HELP SOMEONE VERB WORD / INFINITVEHeis helpingmetypeto typemy paper.
1610. Problem with Subjunctive Verbs Some verbs and noun require a subjunctive. A subjunctive is a change in the usual form of the verb. It is often a verb word (V.1) in English. These verbs are used before THAT.advise command decree (บัญชา), demand desire insistmove maintain orderpray prefer propose recommend request requirestipulate (ระบุ), suggest, urge (กระตุ้น)
17Study the examples below: (V. + that) They prefer that I not serve them anything alcoholic. (อยากให้เป็นว่า…มากกว่า)He recommended that she go with him.My employer insists that I be on time.I suggested that he go to the game.The regulation requires that everyone who holds a non-immigrant visa report his address to the federal government in January of each year. (กำหนดว่าต้อง)We advised our children that they be hard-working in their school subjects and put forth their best efforts. (แนะนำว่าควร)I propose that the vote be secret ballot.
18It is + adj. + that It is advisable that…เป็นการสมควรที่ว่า It is better that…เป็นการดีที่ว่าIt is crucial that…จำเป็นอย่างยิ่งที่ว่าIt is desirable that…เป็นการสมควรที่ว่าIt is essential that…เป็นการจำเป็นที่ว่าIt is imperative that…เป็นการรีบด่วนที่ว่าIt is important that…เป็นการสำคัญที่ว่าIt is necessary that…เป็นการจำเป็นทีว่าIt is preferable that…เป็นการดีกว่าที่ว่าIt is resolved that…ลงมติว่าIt is right that…เป็นการถูกต้องที่ว่าIt is strange that…เป็นการแปลกที่ว่าIt is urgent that…เป็นการด่วนที่ว่าEx: The librarian said that it was important that I return this book immediately.It is essential that she have her physical check up done very month.
19Nouns derived from Subjunctive verbs. demand recommendationinsistence requestpreference requirementproposal suggestionThe recommendation that we be evaluated was approved.He complied with the requirement that all students in education write a thesis.She ignored the suggestion that she get more exercise.The terrorist’s demand that the airline provide a plane will not be met by deadline.He regretted not having followed the advisor’s recommendation that he drop the class.
20Impersonal Expressions Remember that the following adjectives are used in impersonal expressions.essential imperativeimportant necessaryEx:-It is important to verify the data.-It is important that the data be verified.-It is imperative that your signature appear on your ID card.-It is imperative to sign your ID card.-It is necessary that you be on time.-It is necessary to be on time.