Only Gerund Verbs: avoid, go on, keep, burst out, dislike, enjoy, finish, give up, mind, suggest, deny, put off, forgive
Little or no difference in meaning begin, start, continue, intend, advise, allow, recommend, forbid, permit; it needs/ requires/wants Infinitive ! -I am beginning /start/continue to understand (+v. of knowing & understanding) -I began to work. -intend (more usual) -I intend to sell it. /intend him to sell it. - advise, allow, permit, recommend (+ object): -He advised me to do it - It needs+ Inf. Passive (to be done) Gerund! - I began working. -I intend selling it.(less usual) -He advised applying at once. -The grass needs cutting (more usual)
Hate, love, like, prefer Inf – specific (immediate) actions (more hypothetical, more conceptual, less concrete -I like to swim = more focused on the idea of swimming. -I don't like to read in cars. (specific circumstances- it makes me car sick) Ger – general actions (more real, more concrete, more based on action.) -I like swimming = more focused on the activity of swimming. -I like reading. (general state)
Regret, remember, forget Inf – specific (immediate) actions -regret, remember, forget (regret is an earlier action): I regret to say this. -I remembered to lock the door. = must remember, shouldn’t forget to do) -- I often forget signing my checks. Ger – general actions -regret, remember, forget (+gerund is an earlier action): I remember reading about it/ his telling me about it. (= recall) --forget – only negative: I will never forget meeting him.
Difference in meaning: to stop, mean, try, agree Inf – specific (immediate) actions verbGer – general actions = aim : He stopped to talk to her. stop+ don’t do it any longer: He stopped coming late. = intend to do: I meant to get up early. mean= involve (with an impersonal subject): I am determined to get an A even if it means working hard. =make an efforttry= experiment opposite to “refuse”agreeagree TO smb’s doing smth.
Difference in meaning: afraid, anxious, interested, keen, sorry, ashamed Infinitive – a deliberate action adjectiveGerund – an involuntary action =did’n want to carry out the action afraid(of) = because smth. might happen to him = want very muchanxious(about) = worried = I’d like to knowinterested(in)= my hobby = want tokeen(on) = enjoy = feel sadsorry(for) apologize, regret (but: more usual- I am sorry to disturb you) Inf= a subsequent action:.. To ask you for help. ashamed(of) ger = a previous action …of lying to him.