INFINITIVE To express purpose: She went to the bank to get money.
INFINITIVE After certain verbs: advise, agree, decide, hope, promise, refuse, seem, want etc. She decided to wait for a better offer.
INFINITIVE After verbs like know, decide, ask, learn, remember followed by WH- words: I can’t decide where to go on holiday.
INFINITIVE After adjectives like: sorry, happy, glad, afraid, ashamed etc. She was glad to be back.
INFINITIVE After too and enough: She is too sad to talk right now. She was frightened enough to keep silent.
-ING FORM As a noun: Swimming is a pleasant activity.
-ING FORM After certain prepositions: with, without, of She left without saying a word.
-ING FORM After certain verbs: consider, avoid, deny, look forward to, involve, mention, risk, mind, regret, admit, suggest, imagine etc. They avoided speaking to each other all day long.
-ING FORM After go for activities: They went camping.
-ING FORM After: it’s no use, it’s (not) worth, it’s no good, be busy, there’s no point in, can’t help, can’t stand, be/get used to, have difficulty in I can’t stand waiting in a queue.
-ING FORM After: like, love, enjoy, hate, dislike, prefer etc She likes going for long walks.
INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM ? a) NO change in meaning begin, start, continue, allow, permit, recommend, need, require They began to speak / speaking in a lower voice. They don’t allow parking / us to park here.
INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM ? b) With a change in meaning like + infinitive = preference like + -ing = enjoy I like to keep my room clean. I like swimming.
INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM ? stop + infinitive = cease an activity in order to do something else stop + -ing = cease / interrupt an activity They stopped to greet each other. They stopped laughing because they were too loud.
INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM ? try + infinitive =make an attempt try + -ing = try as a solution I tried to speak louder, but I failed. I tried speaking English to him because he didn’t understand my language.
INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM ? remember + infinitive = remember to do an activity remember + -ing form = remember already performing an activity I must remember to water the plants. Ok, I now remember watering the plants.
INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM ? forget + infinitive = not doing an activity forget + -ing = activity is done and forgotten about I forgot to tell her to water the plants. I forgot telling her to water the plants, so I did it again.
INFINITIVE OR -ING FORM ? hear / see / watch / listen + - ing = witnessing a performing action I heard him talking on the phone. hear / see / watch / listen + infinitive= witnessing the whole process I heard him talk on the phone.