2GERUND DEFINITION: THE GERUND IS THE ENGLISH FORM USED AS A NOUN USES: AS A SUBJECT TO TALK ABOUT GENERAL FACTSRiding is a enjoyable form of exerciseFishing and hunting are two stong traditions among rural peopleAS A DIRECT OBJECT OF SOME VERBS (continue, enjoy, finish, like/dislike, love/hate, miss, prefer, recommend, suggest)Ann hates flyingDoctors recommend eating five pieces of vegetables each day
3GERUND USES: AFTER PREPOSITIONS Are you interested in working for us? The children are excited about going on holiday.This knife is only for cutting bread.AFTER THE FOLLOWING VERBAL FORMS: can’t help, can’t stand, feel like, it’s no use / it’s no good, be/get used to, look forward to, spend / waste (time), don’t mind / would mind, it’s (not) worth, (have) difficultyIt’s no used worrying about it.I had difficulty finding a place to live.She can’t help smoking.
4INFINITIVEDEFINITION: IT IS THE BASIC FORM OF THE VERB (PRECEDED BY TO)USES:AS A SUBJECT TALKING ABOUT A SPECIFIC FACTTo explain the situation to him is the best way to be friends again.2. AFTER CERTAIN VERBS (agree, appear/seem, choose, decide, expect, hope, learn, manage, plan, promise, refuse, want/wish, offer, pretend)As I was late, I decided to take a taxi home.They decided not to go out because of the weather.
5INFINITIVEUSES:3. AFTER SOME ADJECTIVES (busy, happy, ready, tired, etc.) OR ADVERBS (slowly, fast, low, high, etc.)She was really busy to attend my call.The music at the pub was too high to have a conversation.4. AFTER THE INDIRECT OBJECT OF CERTAIN VERBS (advise, invite, tell, warn, teach, persuade, allow, order, encourage, force)Who taught you to drive?He warned me not to touch anything.He doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in this house.*SOME VERBS OF PERCEPTION (hear, see, feel), let AND make ARE FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE WITHOUT TOThey made me do it.We have heard him arrive home at four o’clock in the morning.
6VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE SOME VERBS SUCH AS begin, propose, forbid, intend, start CAN BE FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITHOUT A CHANGE OF MEANINGThe baby began crying or The baby began to cryJohn intends buying a house or John intends to buy a houseSOME VERBS SUCH AS stop, remember, regret, forget, try DO NOT HAVE THE SAME MEANING IF THEY ARE FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVEstop + gerund means ‘to leave an habit’Sarah stop biting her nails.stop + infinitive means ‘to interrupt an action to do another one’My mum stopped to look at the shop window.remember + gerund refers to a past actionI clearly remember locking the door before I left.remember + infinitive refers to the future and it’s used to say something important to somebodyPlease remember to post the letter.
7VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE regret + gerund means ‘to regret a past action’We regret going to Egypt without sun cream.regret + infinitive foresees bad newsI regret to tell you that it will rain tomorrow.forget + gerund indicates that we have forgotten something we did in the pastHe forgot having that CD.forget + infinitive indicates that we forget to do somethingI forgot to wash the dishestry + gerund means ‘do something as an experiment or test’I’ve got a terrible headache. I’ve tried taking an aspirin but it doesn’t help.try + infinitive means ‘to attempt to do something, to make an effort’I was very tired. I tried to keep my eyes open but I couldn’t