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Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., PRITCHARD, B., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers 2, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2009. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., PRITCHARD, B., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers 2, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2009. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., PRITCHARD, B., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers 2, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica engleskog jezika za pomorce, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka Tomislav Skračić, MA Undergraduate English Course for MARINE ENGINEERS 3rd Semester

2   Cylinder liners are simple cylindrical shapes flanged at the top end to provide location and secure them in the cylinder block.   The lower end of the liner is fitted with rubber rings so as to form a seal for the bottom of the water spaces.   The sealing rings are designed to prevent scavenge air entering the water spaces.   The bore surface of the cylinder liner is slightly rough in order to retain the oil and to promote rapid wear in.   In order to provide a harder wearing surface, the bore of liners is subjected to the process of nitriding. Expressing the PURPOSE STUDY and TRANSLATE the following sentences:

3 In these sentences the purpose is expressed by using: to + verb (infinitive form)   to provide location so as to + verb (infinitive form)   so as to form a seal in order to + verb (infinitive form)   in order to retain the oil

4 Example: Studs should be evenly tightened. They must provide a satisfactory joint.  Studs should be evenly tightened (in order) to provide a satisfactory joint. Exercise 1 Link the following pairs of sentences so that they express purpose. Omit all unnecessary items:

5 a) a) The inner wall of the cylinder liner is porous. It should provide an oil retaining surface. b) b) A thin layer of lead or indium is often added to the main bearing shells. The layer gives protection against corrosion. c) c) Efficient scavenging is essential. It is designed to ensure sufficient supply of fresh air for combustion. d) d) The diesel oil supply system uses a transfer pump. It is fitted with the purpose of drawing oil from the double bottom tanks. Exercise 1 Link the following pairs of sentences so that they express purpose. Omit all unnecessary items:

6 e) e) The viscosity regulator controls fuel oil temperature. The device must provide oil at the correct viscosity for combustion. f) f) When distant pieces are fitted under the crosshead bearings they must be of exactly the same thickness. Accuracy is required with purpose of ensuring the correct alignment of the connecting rod. g) g) The connecting rod is usually forged from alloy steel, frequently with an “I“ or “channel“ section. This shape permits giving the greatest stiffness for its weight. h) h) Connecting rods sometimes taper slightly from the bottom to the top of the shank. The tapering is aimed at increasing the resistance to the bending stresses.

7   Pistons may be made in aluminium alloy so that they can keep the weight down for the balancing purposes at high speed.   The rings have the gap so that they can be easily assembled on the piston.   The wall pressure of simple ring is restricted by the radial depth of the ring, in order that it may be assembled in the groove.   Send the letter by express mail in order that she gets it before Wednesday. Expressing the PURPOSE STUDY and TRANSLATE the following sentences:

8 In these sentences the purpose is expressed by using: so that + clause (subject + verb...)   so that they can keep the weight down... in order that + clause (subject + verb...)   in order that it may be assembled in the groove. More similar examples:  A fan was fitted at the entrance so that ventilation could be facilitated.  The piston was removed in order that it might be inspected for wear and cracks. Note: IN ORDER THAT is mostly used in formal English. In an informal style, we use SO THAT.

9 Example: Liners are always made of special cast iron. This enables them to resist the abrasive action of piston rings.   Cylinder liners are always made of special cast iron so that they can resist the abrasive action of the piston rings.   Cylinder liners are always made of special cast iron in order that they may resist the abrasive action of the piston rings. Exercise 2 Join the following pairs of sentences introducing the purpose clause by “so that” and “in order that”:

10 a) a) I’ve collected money. I will buy a new car. b) b) Linda turned on the lights. She wanted to see better. c) c) Please come forward. Your faces will appear visibly in the photograph. d) d) She is taking a six months break. She will be able to spend more time with her baby. e) e) I have come early. I want to talk to you. f) f) I am starting now. I won’t get stuck in the traffic. g) g) Daniel took his camera. He wanted to take some photos. Exercise 2 Join the following pairs of sentences introducing the purpose clause by “so that” and “in order that”:

11 a) a) I’ve collected money so that I can buy a new car. b) b) Linda turned on the lights so that she could see better. c) c) Please come forward so that your faces would appear visibly in the photograph. d) d) She is taking a six months break in order that she can spend more time with her baby. e) e) I have come early in order that I can talk to you. f) f) I am starting now in order that I won’t / don’t get stuck in the traffic. g) g) Daniel took his camera so that he could take some photos. Exercise 2 – KEY

12 o oThe research is aimed at finding solutions to this issue. o oFor this purpose the top of the piston crown may be bowl or toroidal shaped. o oFor propulsion purposes, close governing is not essential and stability is more important. o oFor obtaining the best results it is necessary that workers are well paid. ( = To obtain the best results… ) o oThe purpose (aim, object) of this report is to ensure the basic safety in the engine room. o oWhat is the purpose of supercharging? o oThe object of this design is to maintain more accurately the axial dimensions of the ring. Expressing the PURPOSE by using other words or groups of words:

13 1. 1.Piston rings are used in grooves turned in piston. Their purpose is to seal the gases in the top of the cylinder and prevent their leakage down the sides of the piston The engineers worked hard for two days. Their intention was to repair the damage before sailing In the fuel-supply system of larger vessels remote-operated valves are included. So, the fuel is turned off in the accidental occurrence of dangerous leaks, fires or other hazards In addition to special portable power tools, much improved workshop machinery is now provided. This enables a wider spectrum of repair work to be undertaken on board. Exercise 3 Join the sentences. Omit all unnecessary items:

14 5. 5.In the first port the newly-arrived rating bought a small camera. His purpose was to take as many snapshots as possible during the voyage The lower end of the cylinder liner is fitted with rubber rings. Their purpose is to provide seal for the bottom of the water space I sent my proposal to the Department Manager a week ago. I wanted him to consider them long enough before our meeting Scraper ring are generally fitted near the bottom of the trunk pistons. The oil thrown by revolving cranks is scraped off the cylinder wall on the down stroke A distance piece is interposed between the foot and the box. It permits piston to be moved nearer to or farther from the cylinder head at the top dead centre.

15 1. Kakvo je 1.She's on a mission ________ save the world. 2.Recycling is good ________ the environment. 3.I like to arrive 20 minutes early ________ I have time for a cup of tea. 4.I'm doing my homework on the bus ________ my teacher doesn't kill me. 5.The taxi driver took a back street ________ avoid the heavy traffic. 6.My brother Jim went to Thailand ________ escape a meaningless existance. 7.World leaders are doing everything they can ________ destroy the planet. 8.She bought a map ________ she wouldn't get lost. 9.We went to bed early ________ we wouldn't be tired in the morning. Exercise 4 – Fill in the gaps with for, so that or to:

16 1. Kakvo je 10.You must bring warm clothes ________ tomorrow. 11.________ play the guitar you really need lessons. 12.________ playing the guitar you really need lessons. 13.He invited a friend along ________ Carla wouldn't be moody. 14.Charles has gone out ________ get the paper. 15.Let's stop ________ a coffee. 16.Mislav went to Ikea ________ buy furniture. 17.Andrejka is training ________ be a nurse. 18.We arrived in good time ________ get a place near the front. 19.My sister went to London ________ the sales. 20.My sister went to London ________ see JK and Pete. Exercise 4 – Fill in the gaps with for, so that or to:

17 1. Kakvo je 1.She's on a mission ________ save the world. to 2.Recycling is good ________ the environment. for 3.I like to arrive 20 minutes early ________ I have time for a cup of tea. so that 4.I'm doing my homework on the bus ________ my teacher doesn't kill me. so that 5.The taxi driver took a back street ________ avoid the heavy traffic. to 6.My brother Jim went to Thailand ________ escape a meaningless existance. to 7.World leaders are doing everything they can ________ destroy the planet. to 8.She bought a map ________ she wouldn't get lost. so that 9.We went to bed early ________ we wouldn't be tired in the morning. so that Exercise 4 – KEY

18 1. Kakvo je 10.You must bring warm clothes ________ tomorrow. for 11.________ play the guitar you really need lessons. to 12.________ playing the guitar you really need lessons. for 13.He invited a friend along ________ Carla wouldn't be moody. so that 14.Charles has gone out ________ get the paper. to 15.Let's stop ________ a coffee. for 16.Mislav went to Ikea ________ buy furniture. to 17.Andrejka is training ________ be a nurse. to 18.We arrived in good time ________ get a place near the front. to 19.My sister went to London ________ the sales. for 20.My sister went to London ________ see JK and Pete. to Exercise 4 – KEY

19 a) a)U svrhu montiranja (assembly) na klip, prstenovi imaju uobi č ajeni zazor ili zra č nost. b) b)Da bi se prsten što bolje prilagodio (conform to) provrtu cilindra, zra č nost prstenova mora biti što manja. c) c)Klipni prstenovi moraju biti otporni na trenje prilikom kretanja u cilindru. U tu svrhu oni su izvedeni od lijevanog ž eljeza (alloy) manganom i kromom. d) d)Za postizanje (obtain) potrebne ja č ine prstenova u njihovoj izradi upotrebljava se do 1 % molibdena. e) e)Da bi lagano klizio u košuljici klip treba imati stalno i dovoljno podmazivanje. f) f)Koja je svrha uljnih prstenova? Exercise 5 – Translate into English:

20 Exercise 6 – Join the sentences in any way: 1. He tried to find a car park. He wanted to park his car. 2.Mrs. Brown hid the ball. She didn’t let Bill to play football. 3.They got up early. They didn’t want to miss the bus. 4.Mary is wearing glasses. She wants to see better. 5.My father often takes his car to the mechanic. He doesn’t want it to break down. 6.Molly is eating less bread. She doesn’t want to put on weight. 7.Sally usually wears a thick coat. She doesn’t want to catch a cold. 8.Mr. Short used a long ladder. He wanted to reach the high ceiling.

21 Exercise 6 – Join the sentences in any way: 9.My father gave me extra money. He didn’t want me to borrow any from my friends. 10.Davor’s friends visited him. They wanted to congratulate him on his graduation. 11.I’m learning English. I want to get a better job. 12.The driver stopped. Then the children could cross the road. 13.Tom put the cream in the fridge. That would keep it cool. 14.Marko is going to repair the roof. Then the rain won’t come in. 15.We often switch off the heating. It saves money. 16.Tina wore boots. Her feet wouldn’t get wet.

22 1. Kakvo je 1. She’ll start on a diet so that They went to Dubrovnik so that … 3. She bought a new dress so that I’ll give you a map so that … 5. Take your umbrella in case … 6. I left the key for you in case … 7. Take your torch with you in case … 8. Jerko went to the bank in order to … 9. Marjan is going to wear a suit in order to … 10. Marija put on the kettle in order to … 11. Uroš hurried in order not to … 12. I closed the door of my room in order not to... Exercise 7 – Complete the sentences:

23 1. Kakvo je 1.She's going there ____ finalize the contract. 2.Shall we have a break ____ lunch? 3.What do I need to get ____ dinner? 4.I sort my rubbish ____ recycling. 5.He took it back to the shop ___ get a replacement. 6.We left early ____ we wouldn't be late. 7.He's gone travelling ____ find himself. 8.Take some sandwiches ____ eat on the way. 9.You need a licence ____ drive. 10.I'm leaving a bit early today ____ avoid the rush hour. 11.I phoned them ____ complain. 12.I invited them both ____ they wouldn't feel left out. 13.She's gone outside ____ a cigarette. 14.I'm going to town ____ buy a pair of shoes. 15.We took the train ____ we could work on the way. 16.They're going to Spain ____ a holiday. Exercise 8 – Fill the gaps with for, so, so that or to:

24 1. Kakvo je 1.She's going there ____ finalize the contract. to 2.Shall we have a break ____ lunch. to 3.What do I need to get ____ dinner? for 4.I sort my rubbish ____ recycling. for 5.He took it back to the shop ___ get a replacement. to 6.We left early ____ we wouldn't be late. so that 7.He's gone travelling ____ find himself. to 8.Take some sandwiches ____ eat on the way. to 9.You need a licence ____ drive. to 10.I'm leaving a bit early today ____ avoid the rush hour. to 11.I phoned them ____ complain. to 12.I invited them both ____ they wouldn't feel left out. so 13.She's gone outside ____ a cigarette. for 14.I'm going to town ____ buy a pair of shoes. to 15.We took the train ____ we could work on the way. so that 16.They're going to Spain ____ a holiday. for Exercise 8 – KEY

25 Remember There are many ways to express the same idea: We take blankets so that we can keep warm. We took blanketsso (that) we could keep warm. We take blanketsin order that we might keep warm. We take blanketsthat we may keep warm. We take blanketsto keep warm. We take blanketsso as to keep warm. We take blanketsin order to keep warm. We take blanketswith a view to keeping warm. We take blanketswith the aim of keeping warm. We take blanketsfor the purpose of keeping warm. We take blanketsfor warmth.


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