# If clause.

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If clause

When you drink too much, you get drunk.
TYPE 0: expresses general truths & facts IF + SIMPLE PRESENT + SIMPLE PRESENT If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils. When you drink too much, you get drunk.

TYPE 1 : expresses a possibility for the PRESENT or FUTURE IF + SIMPLE PRESENT + SIMPLE FUTURE If the weather is nice, we will go to the park.

If you don’t go to bed early enough, you will be tired tomorrow.
If you don’t wear sun cream, you will get burnt. If you don’t take a coat, you will be cold later. If you oversleep, you will be late for work.

Modals can also be used in order to show a degree of certainty:
If you don’t wear sun cream, you can/may get burnt. I can/may go to the party if I get lots of work done today.

Unless can also be used in place of if + not:
I will not go unless you drive me there. = If you dont drive me there, I won’t go. You will never improve your English unless you do your homework. = If you don’t do your hw, you will never improve your English.

TYPE 2: IMPROBABLE OR UNREAL SITUATION in the present or future
TYPE 2: IMPROBABLE OR UNREAL SITUATION in the present or future. In the mind of the speaker, this action is: - possible but improbable - it can still happen or - highly IMPROBABLE, so it will NEVER happen IF + SIMPLE PAST + PRESENT CONDITIONAL If I studied, I would pass If my family had the money, we would buy a new house.

if clause main clause Simple Past would + V1 or could + V1
Form If I studied, I would pass the exams. I could pass the exams. Examples The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence. If I studied, I would pass the exams. I would pass the exams if I studied

Were instead of Was In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were ‘ – even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it –. Example: If I were you, I would not do this. If you were nicer to him, he could lend you the money. If I were you, I would stay at home and do my homework. If I were you, I would drive more carefully in the rain.

If you did your homework, you wouldn’t get told off.
If she paid her bills, she wouldn’t get into trouble. If he went to bed earlier, he wouldn’t be so grumpy. If he told her off, she would cry. If I ate as much chocolate as you do, I would be sick. If she did her homework, she would learn more quickly.

I want to build a school but I dont have enough money.
If I had enough money I would build a school. Now, do I have money? Tom wants to read French novels but he doesnt know French. If Tom knew French, he would read French novels. Fred wants to play basketball but he is short. If Fred wasn’t short, he would play basketball.

wish/if only + subject + past tense
Present Wishes wish/if only + subject + past tense I wish I had a chance to speak to her. (but I don’t now) I wish I was single. ( but I am married) I wish she came to my party. (but she doesn’t come) = If only she came to my party.

I wish that I had a sports car.
(The truth is I don't have a sports car.) I wish that I were a doctor. (I'm really not a doctor.) She wishes (that) she had a diamond ring. He wishes (that) he were rich. We wish you were here. I wish (that) I were taller.

If I had a lot of money, I would buy a house.
I wish I had a lot of money. (The truth is that you don’t have a lot of money.) If I knew Japanese, I would work in Tokyo. I wish I knew Japanese (The truth is that you don’t know Japanese.) I wish I had a better job. If I had a good job, I would be much happier. (The truth is that you don’t have a good job.) I wish I knew how to type. If I knew how to type, I would be able to get a better job. (The truth is that you don’t know how to type.)

He wishes he were the mayor.
If he were mayor, he would solve the homeless problem. (The truth is that he is not the mayor.) If I were taller, I would play basketball. I wish I were six feet tall. (The truth is that you are not tall.)

Type 2 Unlikely to happen Past simple Would+ infinitive tense
If clause Main clause Type 0 General Truth Present simple Type 1 Probable situation Future Type Unlikely to happen Past simple Would+ infinitive tense Type 3 Impossible situation in past Past Perfect Would+ have+ Past perfect

TYPE 3 Used to express conditions in the past that did not happen. Often used to express criticism or regret with would have, could have or should have.

IF CLAUSE TYPE 3- How to form
main clause Past Perfect would + have + V3 or could + have + V3 or might + have + V3

If I had studied,I would have passed the exams.
If I had studied,I could have passed the exams. If I had studied,I might have passed the exams.

The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.
If I had studied, I would have passed the exams. I would have passed the exams if I had studied.

Where does the “not” go? If the girl had not looked both ways when she crossed the street, a car would have hit her. (Fact: She did look both ways, so a car did not hit her.) If the boys had practiced more, they would not have lost the game. (Fact: They did not practice enough, so they lost the game.)

If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.
Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address, however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation.

If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.
I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris. He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one

If I had learnt more (but I didn't  learn=unreal condition), I would have got a better mark. (So I didn't get a better mark = impossible  consequence) or the other way round: I would have got a better mark (So I didn't get a better mark= impossible consequence) if I had learnt more (but I didn't  learn=unreal condition)

If I hadn't helped you, you would have failed
If I hadn't helped you, you would have failed. = You would have failed, if I hadn't helped you. (I helped you so you didn't fail). If it had been sunny, we could have gone out. = We could have gone out, if it had been. (We didn't go out because it wasn't sunny).

Complete the sentences
Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of the verbs in the parentheses. 1. If you _______ (eat) too much ice cream, you'll get sick. 2. If Juan Carlos ______ (be) a better student, he'd participate in class more often. 3. Brendan ________ (join) the Army if he fails his classes. 4. Rosalie wouldn't be taking the math classes if she ________ (pass) the placement exam. 5. If the general ______ (run) for office, he will be a popular candidate. 6. If Andy had had the salmon, he ________ (like) his meal better. 7. Leo would have spoken to Mr. Lauder if he ________ (want) the job. 8. Leo ________ (speak) to Mr. Lauder if he wants the job. 9. If Catherine had been more aware of her daughter's feelings, she _______ (tell) her  about her father's illness. 10. This whole region will be dangerously dry unless we _______ (get) some rain soon.

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