2Aim - To enable students to use conditional ‘if’ clauses more effectively Objectives - TSSBAT:Recognise the relationship between verb tenses and their uses in conjunction with the four types of ‘if’ clausesUse the conditional ‘if’ clauses correctly
3‘Condition’ means situation - the way that things are, will be or may be. Conditional sentences are often called ‘if clauses’ and they tell us about a possible outcome (result) based on a condition.There are four main types of conditional sentences, zero, first, second and third conditional.
4Zero ConditionalThis structure is used when we want to talk about a general truth, something that is 100% certain.If you heat water to 100°C, it boils.This statement is accepted to be true; it is a fact. Notice that there are two verbs in this sentence ‘heat’ and ‘boils’ and that they are separated by a comma.It is also important to notice how they are both in the present simple tense because this tense is the one that we use when we are talking about a general truth e.g. France is in Europe.
5Task 1Put the verbs from the box in the correct form in the sentences below.1. If I ………at night, I ………a book.2. If he ……… ill, he ……… to the doctor.3. If it ………, we ……… at home.4. If you ………, you ……….5. If chocolates ……… too hot, they ……….6. If you ……… ‘play’, the film ……….melt feel go get press not sleep stay die start not eat read rain
6Water boils if you heat it to 100°C. It is also possible to put the ‘if’ part of the sentence in the middle.Be aware of any lexical (word) changes that may be necessary.Water boils if you heat it to 100°C.
7Task 2 Rewrite the sentences from task 1 with ‘if’ in the middle. 1.I read a book if I don’t sleep at night.2.He goes to the doctor if he feels ill.3.We stay at home if it rains.4.You die if you don’t eat.5.Chocolates melt if they get too hot.6.The film starts if you press ‘play’.
8If I finish my homework, I will meet you. First ConditionalThis talks about things that probably will happen but are not as certain as the zero conditional.If I finish my homework, I will meet you.Here the speaker is not certain that they will finish their homework BUT if they do, they will meet the listener.In the ‘if’ part of the sentence, the verb is in the present simple but the other verb is written with a modal auxiliary verb because they tell us about the probability of the main verb.
9Task 3Decide which of these sentences are correct; change the ones that are not.1. If he goes, he won’t come back.2. If you will study more, you learn quickly.3. If we will score one more goal, we will win the match.4. If I feel better, I will let you know.5. If she’ll listen to you, she’d understand.6. If you try, you may pass the exam.
10Task 4 Rewrite the sentences from task 3 with ‘if’ in the middle. 1. He won’t come back if he goes.2. You’ll learn quickly if you study more.3. We’ll win the match if we score one more goal.4. I’ll let you know if I feel better.5. She’ll understand if she listens to you.6. You may pass the exam if you try.
11If I won the lottery, I would buy a Ferrari. Second conditionalThis conditional really is more like a dream and not likely to happen.If I won the lottery, I would buy a Ferrari.The chances of winning the lottery are very small, especially if you don’t buy a ticket.Notice that the verb in the ‘if’ part of the sentence is now in the past simple and the main verb is used with a modal auxiliary verb.
12Task 5Correct these sentences to make them into unlikely situations in the second conditional.1. If I am you, I read more.2. If he is clever, he buys them all.3. If Wales beat England at football, I am amazed.4. If I am a girl, I wear a lovely dress.5. If you are here, we go to the beach together.6. If Charles and Elizabeth aren’t brother and sister, they like each other more.
13Task 6 Rewrite the sentences from task 5 with ‘if’ in the middle. 1. I’d read more If I was/were you.2. He’d buy them all if he was clever.3. I’d be amazed if Wales beat England at football.4. I’d wear a lovely dress if I was/were a girl.5. We’d go to the beach together if we were together.6. Charles and Elizabeth would like each other more if they weren’t brother and sister.
14If I knew about your visit, I would have prepared dinner. Third ConditionalAn impossible situation in the past.If I knew about your visit, I would have prepared dinner.Clearly we can’t change the past; this conditional expresses regret (sadness about the past) and an impossible alternative (different) result.Now the verb in the ‘if’ part of the sentence is in the past simple and the main verb is used with the modal auxiliary verb in the past - as these can be complicated, here is a list.
15Shouldn’t / Ought not to PresentMustWill / ShallShould / Ought toMay / MightCouldCanWouldWouldn’tCan’tCouldn’tMay not / Mightn’tShouldn’t / Ought not toWon’t / Shalln’tMustn’t
16Past Had to Would Should / Ought to have done May / Might have done Could have doneCouldWould have doneWouldn’t have doneCouldn’tCouldn’t have doneMay not / Mightn’t have doneShouldn’t / Ought not to have doneWouldn’t
17Task 7Rewrite these sentences by changing the modal auxiliary verb phrase in italics to the modal auxiliary in the past. Write your own third conditional sentences for the last two.1. If somebody told you, you would go.2. If I saw her, I would remember.3. If we didn’t study, we would fail the exam.4. If they had finished their homework, we would meet them.5.6.
18Task 8 Rewrite the sentences from task 7 with ‘if’ in the middle. 1. You would have gone if somebody told you.2. I would have remembered if I’d seen her.3. We would have failed the exam if we didn’t study.4. We would have met them if they had finished their homework.5.6.
19Conditionals at a Glance Zero Conditional - 100% certain.If you heat water to 100°C, it boils.present simple present simpleFirst Conditional - probably will happen but are not as certain as the zero conditional.If I finish my homework, I will meet you.present simple modal auxiliary verb + main verbSecond conditional - not likelyIf I won the lottery, I would buy a Ferrari.past simple modal auxiliary verb + main verbThird Conditional - impossible situation in the past.If I knew about your visit, I would have prepared dinner.past simple modal auxiliary verb in the past + past participle
20Aim - To enable students to use conditional ‘if’ clauses more effectively Objectives - TSSBAT:Recognise the relationship between verb tenses and their uses in conjunction with the four types of ‘if’ clausesUse the conditional ‘if’ clauses correctly