Presentation on theme: "ALL CONDITIONALS and future time clauses to talk about hypothetical, real, possible,improbable,impossible, regretful etc …. situations If …………… (and."— Presentation transcript:
1ALL CONDITIONALS and future time clauses to talk about hypothetical, real, possible,improbable,impossible, regretful etc …. situations If …………… (and their consequences)
2Remember … You can invert the two clauses in all conditionals: If I were you, I’d stop smoking.I’d stop smoking, If I were you.If not = unless
3Different types of conditionals 1) zero conditional2) First conditionalSecond conditionalThird conditionalMixed conditional
4Zero conditional: Form If + present simple, and present simpleYou can also use present continuous or present perfect in either clause.Eg. If you haven’t been to London, you haven’t lived.
5ZERO conditional If/when prices go down, sales increase Water boils when it reaches 100°C.If/when prices go down, sales increaseif+Present simple + present simpeIf people have travelled a lot in life, they have lived!If+Present perfect + present perfectIf/when people have been working all day, we don’t get good results.If+Present perfect continuous + present simple
6Zero Conditional is used: To talk about things that are generally true as a result of something, things which always happen.Scientific or biological facts.General causes and effects.In these kind of conditionals we use present tenses (present simple, present continuous, present perfect) in both clauses.
7First Conditional First clause /after if Second clause If + Any present tense (present simple/ continuous/perfect)WILL/WON’TGoing to + infinitiveFuture perfectFuture continuousimperative
8Examples (first conditional) If you don’t do more work, you’ll fail the exam.She won’t get into University unless she gets good grades. (Unless = if not)If I haven’t come back by 1 o’clock start without me.If you’re not going, I’m not going to go.If you send the file by 5 pm today, I’ll have the report finished with my additions by 1 pm tomorrow.
9Future time clausesWhen you are talking about the future, use a present tense after these expressions:Any Present tense: Present simple/continuous/perfect.As soon asWhenUntilUnlessBefore/afterIn case
10Future time clauses I’ll be ready as soon as I’ve fished this survey. We’ll probabbly be interviewing more candidates when you arrive.We are not going to start until you have arrived/you arriveI’m not going to work overtime unless I get paid.Take an umbrella in case it rains.
11In case/ifWe use in case when we do something in order to be ready for future situations/problems.Compare:I’ll accept the job offer If it’s well paid.= I won’t accept the job offer if it’s not well paid.I’ll accept the job in case I don’t get any other offers.= I will accept anyway, because there might not be any other offers.
12Second Conditional Would/wouldn’t +VERB (without to) If + PAST SIMPLE Or If + PAST CONTINUOUSWould/wouldn’t +VERB (without to)Might/might not(without to)Could/couldn’t
13When do you use the 2° Conditional? Use the second conditional to talk about hypothetical/imaginary or improbable situations in the present or future and their consequences.Also to give advice:eg: If I were you, I’d get the earlier flight.NOTE when you give advice:With the verb Be you use were for I/he/she and it in the if clause.eg: If he/I were here, he/I’d know what to do.
14Compare 1° and 2° Conditional If I have time, I’ll help you.= a possible situation. I may have time.If I had time, I’d help you.= an imaginary/hypothetical situation.I don’t/won’t have time.Remember here: I’d = I would
15Third CONDITIONAL Past prefect Simple or + Past Perfect Continuous Would (not) + have + past participleMight (not) + have + past participleCould (not) + have + past participle
16Eg: If you had studied more, you would have done better in your exams. Eg: If you had worked harder, you wouldn’t have been dismissed.Eg: if you had been driving more slowly you wouldn’t have got stopped by the police.To talk about a hypothetical past situation and its consequence.Used to express the wish to change a past action or situation.Often used to express regret.
17Compare 2° and 3° conditionals Eg: If you studied more, you would do better in your exams.Eg: If you had studied more, you would have done better in your exams.
18Eg: If you studied more, you would do better in your exams. = you don’t study enough. But if you did things would be different.Eg: If you had studied more, you would have done better in your exams.= you didn’t study enough, so you failed. You imagine how things could have been different in the past.
19Mixed Conditional (2° + 3°) If + Past perfect SimpleIf + Past perfect ContinuousWould/would’t + VERBMight/might not + VERBCould/couldn’t + VERB
20Mixed Conditional (2° + 3°) If I had bought shares in that company, I would be rich now.The mixed conditional here is used to express regret about the present situation, because of a past action.The hypothetical situation in the past has a present/future consequence. (not past)
21Which conditional? When…. Wishing to change the pastA real possibilityTo hypothesise about an imaginary improbable situation in the present or futureGeneral cause and effectA specific cause and effectA remote/unlikely possibilityScientific facts or gereral truthsTo give adviceCause and effect in pastYou imagine a past action with a result in present/future
22Which conditional? When…. Wishing to change the past – 3° condA real possibility – 1° condTo hypothesise about an imaginary improbable situation in present or future – 2° condGeneral cause and effect – zero condA specific cause and effect - 1° condA remote/unlikely possibility 2° condScientific facts or gereral truths - zero condTo give advice - 2° condCause and effect in past – 3° condYou imagine a past action with a result in present: mixed cond
23Complete sentences with the appropriate conditional form It’ll be quicker if we …….. a taxi to the airport. (get)If the company stopped advertising online it ……. (have) higher operating costs.I think he’d be happier if he …..(not live) alone.The managing director wouldn’t have fired so many of his employees if they …….. (relocate) earlier.We don’t start if all the students ……..(talk)I’ll be very surprised if Maria ….(not get) the job that was advertised here last week.If you cross an international date line, the time…..(change).If the entrepreneur hadn’t taken so many risks, the company ……….(not close down).All the goods would have sold out If we ……….. (drop) the prices a little.If I ……… (pass) all my exams I would be working by now.If I ………(to be) you, I’d leave it until tomorrow.
24KEY It’ll be quicker if we get a taxi to the airport. If the company stopped advertising online, it would have higher operating costs.I think he’d be happier, if he didn’t live alone.The managing director wouldn’t have fired many of his employees if they had relocated earlier.We don’t start if all the students are talking.I’ll be very surprised if Maria doesn’t get the job that was advertised here last week.If you cross an international date line, the time changes.If the entrepreneur hadn’t taken so many risks, the company wouldn’t have closed down.All the goods would have sold out, If we had dropped the prices a little.If I had passed all my exams, I would be working by now. (mixed cond)If I were you, I’d leave it until tomorrow.