# ALL CONDITIONALS and future time clauses to talk about hypothetical, real, possible,improbable,impossible, regretful etc …. situations If …………… (and.

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ALL CONDITIONALS and future time clauses to talk about hypothetical, real, possible,improbable,impossible, regretful etc …. situations If …………… (and their consequences)

Remember … You can invert the two clauses in all conditionals:
If I were you, I’d stop smoking. I’d stop smoking, If I were you. If not = unless

Different types of conditionals
1) zero conditional 2) First conditional Second conditional Third conditional Mixed conditional

Zero conditional: Form
If + present simple, and present simple You can also use present continuous or present perfect in either clause. Eg. If you haven’t been to London, you haven’t lived.

ZERO conditional If/when prices go down, sales increase
Water boils when it reaches 100°C. If/when prices go down, sales increase if+Present simple + present simpe If people have travelled a lot in life, they have lived! If+Present perfect + present perfect If/when people have been working all day, we don’t get good results. If+Present perfect continuous + present simple

Zero Conditional is used:
To talk about things that are generally true as a result of something, things which always happen. Scientific or biological facts. General causes and effects. In these kind of conditionals we use present tenses (present simple, present continuous, present perfect) in both clauses.

First Conditional First clause /after if Second clause
If + Any present tense (present simple/ continuous/perfect) WILL/WON’T Going to + infinitive Future perfect Future continuous imperative

Examples (first conditional)
If you don’t do more work, you’ll fail the exam. She won’t get into University unless she gets good grades. (Unless = if not) If I haven’t come back by 1 o’clock start without me. If you’re not going, I’m not going to go. If you send the file by 5 pm today, I’ll have the report finished with my additions by 1 pm tomorrow.

Future time clauses When you are talking about the future, use a present tense after these expressions: Any Present tense: Present simple/continuous/perfect. As soon as When Until Unless Before/after In case

Future time clauses I’ll be ready as soon as I’ve fished this survey.
We’ll probabbly be interviewing more candidates when you arrive. We are not going to start until you have arrived/you arrive I’m not going to work overtime unless I get paid. Take an umbrella in case it rains.

In case/if We use in case when we do something in order to be ready for future situations/problems. Compare: I’ll accept the job offer If it’s well paid. = I won’t accept the job offer if it’s not well paid. I’ll accept the job in case I don’t get any other offers. = I will accept anyway, because there might not be any other offers.

Second Conditional Would/wouldn’t +VERB (without to)
If + PAST SIMPLE Or If + PAST CONTINUOUS Would/wouldn’t +VERB (without to) Might/might not (without to) Could/couldn’t

When do you use the 2° Conditional?
Use the second conditional to talk about hypothetical/imaginary or improbable situations in the present or future and their consequences. Also to give advice: eg: If I were you, I’d get the earlier flight. NOTE when you give advice: With the verb Be you use were for I/he/she and it in the if clause. eg: If he/I were here, he/I’d know what to do.

Compare 1° and 2° Conditional
If I have time, I’ll help you. = a possible situation. I may have time. If I had time, I’d help you. = an imaginary/hypothetical situation. I don’t/won’t have time. Remember here: I’d = I would

Third CONDITIONAL Past prefect Simple or + Past Perfect Continuous
Would (not) + have + past participle Might (not) + have + past participle Could (not) + have + past participle

Eg: If you had studied more, you would have done better in your exams.
Eg: If you had worked harder, you wouldn’t have been dismissed. Eg: if you had been driving more slowly you wouldn’t have got stopped by the police. To talk about a hypothetical past situation and its consequence. Used to express the wish to change a past action or situation. Often used to express regret.

Compare 2° and 3° conditionals
Eg: If you studied more, you would do better in your exams. Eg: If you had studied more, you would have done better in your exams.

Eg: If you studied more, you would do better in your exams.
= you don’t study enough. But if you did things would be different. Eg: If you had studied more, you would have done better in your exams. = you didn’t study enough, so you failed. You imagine how things could have been different in the past.

Mixed Conditional (2° + 3°)
If + Past perfect Simple If + Past perfect Continuous Would/would’t + VERB Might/might not + VERB Could/couldn’t + VERB

Mixed Conditional (2° + 3°)
If I had bought shares in that company, I would be rich now. The mixed conditional here is used to express regret about the present situation, because of a past action. The hypothetical situation in the past has a present/future consequence. (not past)

Which conditional? When….
Wishing to change the past A real possibility To hypothesise about an imaginary improbable situation in the present or future General cause and effect A specific cause and effect A remote/unlikely possibility Scientific facts or gereral truths To give advice Cause and effect in past You imagine a past action with a result in present/future

Which conditional? When….
Wishing to change the past – 3° cond A real possibility – 1° cond To hypothesise about an imaginary improbable situation in present or future – 2° cond General cause and effect – zero cond A specific cause and effect - 1° cond A remote/unlikely possibility 2° cond Scientific facts or gereral truths - zero cond To give advice - 2° cond Cause and effect in past – 3° cond You imagine a past action with a result in present: mixed cond

Complete sentences with the appropriate conditional form
It’ll be quicker if we …….. a taxi to the airport. (get) If the company stopped advertising online it ……. (have) higher operating costs. I think he’d be happier if he …..(not live) alone. The managing director wouldn’t have fired so many of his employees if they …….. (relocate) earlier. We don’t start if all the students ……..(talk) I’ll be very surprised if Maria ….(not get) the job that was advertised here last week. If you cross an international date line, the time…..(change). If the entrepreneur hadn’t taken so many risks, the company ……….(not close down). All the goods would have sold out If we ……….. (drop) the prices a little. If I ……… (pass) all my exams I would be working by now. If I ………(to be) you, I’d leave it until tomorrow.

KEY It’ll be quicker if we get a taxi to the airport.
If the company stopped advertising online, it would have higher operating costs. I think he’d be happier, if he didn’t live alone. The managing director wouldn’t have fired many of his employees if they had relocated earlier. We don’t start if all the students are talking. I’ll be very surprised if Maria doesn’t get the job that was advertised here last week. If you cross an international date line, the time changes. If the entrepreneur hadn’t taken so many risks, the company wouldn’t have closed down. All the goods would have sold out, If we had dropped the prices a little. If I had passed all my exams, I would be working by now. (mixed cond) If I were you, I’d leave it until tomorrow.

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