Presentation on theme: "(c) The Latvian Institute 1 LATVIA a captive of superpowers in the 20th century."— Presentation transcript:
(c) The Latvian Institute 1 LATVIA a captive of superpowers in the 20th century
(c) The Latvian Institute2 Latvia – an independent state ► 18 November, 1918 Latvia declares its independence. ► 11 August, 1920 Soviet Russia (later – the USSR) and the Republic of Latvia sign a Peace Treaty. Russia acknowledges Latvia’s independence and for ever withdraws its claims for the territory of Latvia. ► 7 April, 1923 The USSR and Latvia sign a Border Treaty; Latvia’s Eastern border with Russia defined. ► 5 February, 1932 The USSR and Latvia sign a non- aggression pact. Russia and Latvia signing Peace Treaty on 11 August, 1920.
(c) The Latvian Institute3 Agreement between Moscow and Berlin on interest spheres in the Baltics ► 23 August, 1939 Non-aggression pact between the USSR and Germany: both totalitarian states divide Eastern Europe between them. According to the secret protocol, Latvia together with Estonia and later also Lithuania, are absorbed within the Soviet sphere of influence. ► 5 October, 1939 Threatening armed intervention, the USSR forces Latvia’s government to sign an agreement allowing Soviet army bases on Latvian territory. (officially called a „mutual assistance agreement”). Signing non-aggression pact between the USSR and Germany in Moscow, 1939. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany J.fon Ribbentrop, the leader of the USSR J.Stalin and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs V.Molotov.
(c) The Latvian Institute4 The USSR occupies the Baltic States ► June 16, 1940 Violating all agreements and treaties between the two states, as well as the principles of international law, the USSR delivers an ultimatum to Latvia. It demands the formation of a new pro-Soviet government and announces the immediate deployment of Soviet armed forces to the country. ► June 17, 1940 The USSR army occupy whole territory of Latvia and take control over the state. The USSR army entering Riga on 17 June, 1940.
(c) The Latvian Institute5 Forced incorporation of Latvia into the USSR ► 21 July, 1940 After compulsory elections organised by the USSR, power is passed to the Latvian pro-Moscow faction, which proclaims Latvia a Soviet Republic. ► 23 July, 1940 The USA Foreign Affairs department declares that the occupation of the Baltic countries is illegal and their incorporation into the USSR is not recognised by the USA. ► 5 August, 1940 Latvia is annexed to the USSR against the peoples’ will. Certification by Department of State of the USA of non-recognition of the incorporation of Latvia by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 29 May, 1957.
(c) The Latvian Institute6 Moscow subjects Latvia to the first repressions ► 22 July, 1940 USSR security forces arrest the State President of the formerly independent Republic of Latvia, Kārlis Ulmanis, and deport him to the USSR, where he dies in imprisonment on 20 September, 1942. ► 14 June, 1941 15 424 Latvians are deported from Latvia to Siberia: the political and business elite of Latvia is considered to be hostile towards the occupation regime. Among the deported are almost 100 infants under the age of 1 and more than 3000 children under the age of 16. Kārlis Ulmanis, Latvian State president. Arrested after the occupation of Latvia, died in imprisonment in the USSR in 1942.
(c) The Latvian Institute7 Latvia under German occupation ► June – July 1941 Latvia’s territory is occupied by the German „Third Reich”. ► March 1943 Germany begins compulsory recruitment of Latvian civilians into its occupation army. ► 1941 – 1944 The German occupation regime exterminates over 90 000 Latvian civilians, mainly Jews. A draft order into German „Latvian SS legion” issued to a Latvian civilian, 1943.
(c) The Latvian Institute8 The end of the World War II and repeated Soviet occupation ► November – December 1943 and February 1945 Tehran and Yalta conferences. The leaders of the USSR, the USA and Great Britain come to terms on the after war order – the USA and Great Britain do not object to Moscow’s control over the Baltic countries. ► 8 May, 1945 End of the war. The German occupation army capitulates and the USSR occupation power is re- established in the territory of Latvia. Yalta (Crimea) conference on 4-11 February, 1945. The Prime Minister of Great Britain, W.Churchill and the President of the USA F.D. Roosevelt accept Stalin’s demands that the USSR retain control of the Baltic countries after the war.
(c) The Latvian Institute9 Moscow organises a second round of repressions in Latvia ► 1945 – 1956 A continuous Latvian national partisan armed struggle against the second Soviet occupation spread throughout the country. ► 25 March, 1949 More than 43 000 innocent people are labelled as enemies of the re- established Soviet regime and are deported to Siberia. During the Soviet repressions of 1949 entire families, including children and elderly, were loaded into in railroad boxcars and deported to Siberia. (a secretly taken photograph)
(c) The Latvian Institute10 Restoring Latvia’s independence ► 14 June and 23 August, 1987 The first large anti-Soviet and anti-occupation demonstrations in Riga. ► 21 August, 1991 Latvia restores its independence and the Constitution (Satversme) of 1922. ► 31 August, 1994 The last troops of Russian (former USSR) occupation army leave Latvia. A demonstration in Riga on 18 November, 1989 gathers about half a million people who demand an immediate end to the Soviet occupation.
(c) The Latvian Institute11 Recognising the consequences of the Baltic Occupation by Russia ► 8, 9 May, 2005 The 60th anniversary of the end of German occupation and second occupation of the Baltic countries by the USSR. To this day, Russia, the legal successor of the USSR, has never acknowledged the armed occupation and illegal annexation of the Baltic countries to the USSR. ► By condemning this criminal act, Russia would: demonstrate good will to the people of the Baltic countries; join the international community in an honest assessment of the history of the 20th century and the crimes against humanity carried out by two totalitarian states – the USSR and German „Third Reich”; diminish Russia’s image as an external threat among the people the Baltic countries; pave the way for a constructive, forward-looking relationship with the European Union and NATO.