Presentation on theme: "The International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania Ingrida Vilkiene Deputy director and."— Presentation transcript:
The International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania Ingrida Vilkiene Deputy director and coordinator educational programs
The International Commission was formed by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Lithuania, Valdas Adamkus
About the Commission: The International Commission was formed due to the repressive legacy of Soviet rule painful problems of the past, such as the Holocaust and other issues, had never been subjected to uncensored public discussion. The International Commission consists of 12 historians who are well – known in the world.
The conferences of the Commission
Historian researches The Soviet occupation: 5 Volumes (red colour books) The Nazi occupation: 3 Volumes (grey colour books)
The structure of the Commission: President of Lithuania Chairman of Commission Executive director Secretariat, which works all the time 12 Historians
Secretariat Historian researches Educational activity: Educational program, which is connected with the historian researches
The education activities of Commission have begun to organize from 2002. At this moment was created the program Teaching about the Crimes of Totalitarian Regimes, Prevention of Crimes against Humanity and Tolerance Education
Short introduction Lithuania’s history
13 Century 16 17 18 Lithuania was established in 13 century by king Mindaugas The country was independent till the 16th century The Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania was formed by the union of these two countries. The new Commonwealth was one of the largest and most populous countries in the 16th and 17th-century Europe The country was partitioned in three stages by the neighboring Russian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Monarchy. Lithuania was included into the Russian Empire
The political cartoon of this event
In 1915, during the First World War, Lithuania was occupied by the German army The Council of Lithuania declared independence of Lithuania on the 16 th of February 1918. Lithuania was independence still 1940
The ethnic structure of Lithuania in 1940 Out of 3.14 million inhabitants: 2.3 million Lithuanians (74.6 %) 330.000 Poles (10.5 %) 210.000 Jews (6.7 %) 130.000 Germans (4.1 %) 24.000 Russians (2.5 %) Over 50.000 other nationalities (1.6 %)
The tragedy of Lithuania began in August 1939, when Hitler and Stalin signed a cynical agreement dividing up European territories between two totalitarian states (the USSR and Germany). In June 1940 the Soviet Union annexed Lithuania in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
The mass deportations to Siberia started on June 14, 1941 and lasted one week The deportation applied about 17.500 people. 72.7% Lithuanians, 13.5% – Jews, 10.4%- Poles
The Nazi occupied Lithuania at the end of June, in 1941. Lithuanian Jewish community consisted of 250.000 members. The mass killing started in early August and continued till December 1941. In this period the vast majority of Lithuanian Jewry was destructed.
Over 40.000 Jews lived in Ghettos and work – camps till 1943-1944
The Nazi occupation lasted for 4 years, till 1945. Only 9.000 Lithuanian Jews survived the war After WW II, Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union again
After a period of German occupation Red Army for the second time occupied Lithuania. Lithuanian partisans started armed Anti- Soviet resistance. It took place in Lithuania during 1944-1953
About 20.000 people were killed during the armed resistance. The vast majority of them were 16 - 21 years old. The part of partisans was sent to Siberia, to work camps for 25 years...
Soviets renewed the deportations to Siberia at the same time as the partisan war started in Lithuania. The greatest extent of deportations took place in 1948-1952. The most popular accusation – the violation of 58 article of the Criminal Code. It means that a person was involved in Anti -Soviet activities. These people were deported for 15-25 years
The majority of people were sent to Krasnoyarsk Krai, Kazakhstan and the North part of Soviet Union (Siberia) Lithuania lost 280 000 people during the 1944- 1953 period. More than half of them dead in Siberia
When Stalin died the mass deportations were over But Lithuania was forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union. It became a Soviet republic, which had to obey Moscow orders.
Lithuania has regained the independence in 1990. Lithuania is a member of European Union from 2004; it is also a member of the other international organizations.
Educational activity of the International Commission
How does the Tolerance program works? Initiation and coordination of the School Project activities; Training seminars, conferences for teachers, politicians and our society; Development of the Tolerance Educational Network; Preparation of methodology (curriculum)
Commemoration of historical dates, projects: - Lithuanian Jewish Genocide Day on 23 September; – International Day of Tolerance on 16 November; – 13th of January, Freedom Defenders Day; – International Holocaust Remembrance Day on 27 January; – 14th of June, Day of Mourning and Hope;
Moments from teachers seminars:
Lithuanian Jewish Genocide Day on 23 September
13th of January, Freedom Defenders Day;
International Holocaust Remembrance Day on 27 January;
14th of June, Day of Mourning and Hope
International Day for Tolerance on 16 November
The Tolerance Educational centers in Lithuania
The international project “Memorial Sites as a Key for Future Education” 2012
The project is co-financed by the European Union through the programme Europe for Citizens Action 4 “Active European Remembrance”.
The project “ Memorial Sites as a Key for Future Education ” The project focuses on the tragic Holocaust period in Poland and Lithuania The main organizer of the project: The Secretariat of the International Commission
The partner of the project:
The implementation of the project: 2 seminars for teachers and educators from 2 countries: Lithuania and Poland The first seminar in Poland (Spring, 2012) The second seminar in Lithuania (Summer, 2012)
Our aims for seminars: Acquaintance with educational programs and materials of the Memorial Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum; New experience – how to use material of Museum in the educational process; Visiting memorial sites in Lithuania which are connected with Holocaust tragedy; Exchange of opinions – how to teach students about this topic, how to use materials of Museums into the learning process;