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Presentation on theme: "Clauses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clauses

2 A clause, by definition, has a subject & a verb:
We ran. Because he doesn’t know. They laughed. That he can see. If it doesn’t have both a subject & verb, it’s a phrase, not a clause: In the middle of the night Running after the car To visit the sick Condemned to death His friend being sick

3 There are 2 types of clause: dependent & independent
There are 2 types of clause: dependent & independent. Independent clauses can stand on their own (i.e., they are sentences): Dependent clauses cannot stand alone. They’re dependent on & subordinate to another clause: We ran. He sat down. They laughed. You broke the chair. Because he doesn’t know. That he can see. Those ideas are subordinate to other ideas: (He didn’t answer) because he doesn’t know. (I’m thrilled) that he can see. Dependent clauses are also called subordinate clauses, since the idea they state is subordinate to another idea & clause.

4 I know that you’re engaged.
There are lots of SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS that can link a dependent clause to an independent clause: although, after, before, if, why, so that, since, until, etc. Subordinate clauses don’t just hang out looking for something to do; each has one of 3 functions: noun, adjective, adverb. I know what? Subject verb direct object I know the truth. I know that you’re engaged. “The truth” & “that you’re engaged” are nouns & do the same thing: both are the direct object in the sentence.

5 I know the tall man. I know the man who is wearing the hat. In the above sentences, “tall” & “who is wearing the hat” do the same thing: they tell us which man. So both are adjectives. He ran yesterday. He ran until he was tired. In the sentences above, “yesterday” & “until he was tired” answer the same question: WHEN did he run? So both are adverbs.

6 ALL clauses are either noun, adjective, or adverb
ALL clauses are either noun, adjective, or adverb. If they’re nouns, you can identify them by seeing if they act as a noun: subject, direct object, etc. If they’re adjectives, they identify a noun, tell which one. If they’re adverbs, they answer where, why, when, how, under what circumstances. USUALLY, noun clauses start with “what,” “which,” or “that.” USUALLY, adjective clauses start with “who,” “whom,” or “that.” USUALLY, any clause that doesn’t start with one of the aforementioned words is an adverb clause. Also, USUALLY, if you can’t figure out what the heck the clause is doing, it’s an adverb clause.

7 Click here to go to your assignment.
Then click here to go to the second one. Adverbial Clauses Adverbial Clauses - exercise 2 Adverbial Clauses - exercise 3 Adverbial Clauses - exercise 4 Adverbial Clauses - exercise 5 Adjectival Clauses Adjectival Clauses - exercise 2 Adjectival Clauses - exercise 3 Adjectival Clauses - exercise 4 Adjectival Clauses - exercise 5 Nominal Clauses Nominal Clauses - exercise 2 Nominal Clauses - exercise 3 Nominal Clauses - exercise 4 Nominal Clauses - exercise 5

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