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History of the Army National Guard. 22 Terminal Learning Objective Action: Identify accomplishments of the Army National Guard through-out the history.

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Presentation on theme: "History of the Army National Guard. 22 Terminal Learning Objective Action: Identify accomplishments of the Army National Guard through-out the history."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of the Army National Guard

2 22 Terminal Learning Objective Action: Identify accomplishments of the Army National Guard through-out the history of the United States of America Conditions: Given this lesson plan Standards: Discuss significant events of the ARNG from the beginning of the militia to current foreign and domestic situations

3 3 The First Muster The First Muster When the National Guard's oldest regiments met for their first drill on the village green in Salem, Massachusetts, they were barely 3 months old, organized on December 13th, 1636, the date we now celebrate as the National Guard birthday. In 1637, the English settlements in North America were a tiny fringe along the Eastern seaboard. As settlement pushed west into the interior, the institution of the militia, which the colonists brought with them from England, went with them. The militia tradition meant citizens organizing themselves into military units, responsible for their own defense. The militia, later called the National Guard, has fought in all the nation's major wars, as it fights today in Iraq and Afghanistan. Its oldest units, like the one pictured above, are the oldest units in the United States military and among the oldest military units in the world.

4 4 French and Indian War French and Indian War - "20 Brave Men" At their first muster, the members of the Massachusetts militia drilled with pikes and wore armor, just like all European armies of the time. But in North America they faced a new enemy, the Native Americans who fought to preserve their homelands, and a new environment: a vast, largely empty forest. Armor was a hindrance, and so were the formal battle formations employed in Europe. By the time of the French and Indian War, the English colonists had adopted many of the fighting skills of the Indians, and even some of their weapons and clothing. They would put these skills to use in the coming decades.

5 5 American Revolution American Revolution Although they did not wear the spit-and-polish uniforms of the British, generations of colonial warfare had made the American militia a home-grown force with its own military traditions. In 1775, after decades of political squabbling over taxes and parliamentary representation, the Massachusetts militia stood their ground at Lexington and Concord to fire the "shot heard 'round the world" which started the Revolutionary War. It was the militia which initially formed the Continental Army led by George Washington and augmented it a key times before battle. Just as importantly, local militias were key in holding the countryside and denying the British intelligence and popular support, gradually turning the tide of popular opinion towards independence.

6 6 World War I World War I The U.S. entered World War I in April 1917, and by that summer the entire National Guard, more than 300,000 men, was on active duty. The troops who sailed to France to fight with the British and French included three regiments of African-American Guardsmen. African- Americans had a long tradition of service going back to the colonial militias and the Revolutionary War, and after the Civil War black units were organized on both sides of the Mason-Dixon Line. The 369th Infantry, organized as the 15th New York Infantry in 1915, fought with the French Army, and were nicknamed "Hell fighters" by their French comrades. The regiment spent more continuous days in combat than any other American regiment. Their regimental band, which was twice the size of a standard regimental band and included many of New York's finest African-American musicians, played a vital role in spreading the popularity of the distinctly American musical form of jazz to the continent of Europe.

7 7 World War II World War II - Pacific The entire National Guard was mobilized for active duty for training in 1940 and 1941, well before the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor brought us into the war. By the fall of 1941, Guard units had been shipped across the Pacific to reinforce U.S. bases in Hawaii and the Philippines. When the Japanese struck, one Coast Artillery regiment, from New Mexico, and two tank battalions, made up of companies from all over the U.S., were in the Philippines. These men were part of the doomed U.S. force that was finally forced to surrender to the Japanese in the spring of They suffered terribly for three years as prisoners of war; almost half of them did not survive. But as these men made what has come to be called the Bataan Death March into captivity, other Guardsmen were boarding ships for Europe and Australia, where they would become the first U.S. divisions to fight the Germans and the Japanese.

8 8 Korean War Korean War After North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950, United States armed forces fought to repel Communist aggression. The Korean War brought more than 183,000 Army and Air Guard members to active duty. Army Guard units included eight infantry divisions and three regimental combat teams. The Air Guard call up included 66 of its 92 flying squadrons along with numerous support organizations. Two infantry divisions, the 40th of California and the 45th of Oklahoma, and two air wings, the 116th and the 136th, fought in Korea.

9 9 Vietnam Vietnam During the Vietnam War, no massive call-ups of National Guard and Reserve units were made to raise military manpower. However, on January 25, 1968, a limited number of Air Guard units were ordered to active duty following the seizure of the U.S.S. Pueblo by the North Koreans. The communists' Tet Offensive in South Vietnam during February 1968 led to another limited mobilization of Army and Air Guard units in March Of the more than 22,000 Army and Air Guardsmen mobilized following the Tet offensive, nearly 9,000 served in Vietnam. Thousands more served as volunteers in the war zone.

10 10 Operation Desert Storm Operation Desert Storm On 2 August 1990, the forces of Iraq invaded Kuwait. From the first days of the world's response to the Iraq's invasion, Guard soldiers and Airmen reacted, initially as volunteers, and later as members of mobilized units. More than 62,000 Army National Guard soldiers and 12,000 Air Guard Airmen were mobilized. The first major mobilization of the all-volunteer era, and the largest since the Korean War, was a huge success.

11 11 Global War on Terror Global War on Terror The Florida Army National Guard's 1st Battalion, 124th Infantry, along with the regiment's second and third battalions, was mobilized in January 2003 for service in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Following thirty-eight days of post mobilization training at Forth Steward, GA, the unit deployed to Jordan where initially served as the security force at Prince Hassan Air Base, a forward operating base for U.S. Special Operations Forces and A-10 aircraft of the United States Air Force.

12 12 Terminal Learning Objective Action: Identify accomplishments of the Army National Guard through-out the history of the United States of America Conditions: Given this lesson plan Standards: Discuss significant events of the ARNG from the beginning of the militia to current foreign and domestic situations


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