Presentation on theme: "World War II Begins Axis Powers on the Move. Rebuilding Germany Hitler came to power in 1933 under the promise of restoring German greatness and territory."— Presentation transcript:
Rebuilding Germany Hitler came to power in 1933 under the promise of restoring German greatness and territory – Treaty of Versailles had taken this from them after World War I Hitler said Germans needed lebensraum – Lebensraum – living space for Germans to grow and prosper – Began the quest to give Germany more territory
Rebuilding the Military Hitler prayed on the laziness of European leaders – They did not want to fight over German aggression or over the Germans breaking the Treaty of Versailles 1935 – Britain agrees to a treaty with Germany allowing them to build submarines and other warships – Hitler claimed that he needed these to combat the spread of Communism
German Expansion 1936 – Germany sends armed forces into Rhineland and holds it – Said it was in response to Soviet-French agreement – France and England not happy but do nothing 1938 – Annexation of Austria by Germany – Annexation – formal joining of one nation to another – Called the Anschluss – Germany sent military in during March and no one opposed him
German Expansion 1938 – Czechoslovakia was given to Germany by British when British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain gave in to Hitler – Appeasement – policy where one nation gives in to the demands of another aggressive nation to prevent a war – Chamberlain quote “I believe this is a peace for our time.” – Deal was opposed by Churchill in Parliament
Axis Powers Unite Started with the Anti-Comintern Pact between Germany and Japan in 1936 – 1937 – Italy joins the Anti-Comintern Pact Anti-Comintern Pact – united Germany, Japan, and Italy in an agreement to fight against the spread of Communism – Once Italy joins – Axis Powers are formed 1939 – Germany and Italy sign a military alliance pledging to fight for each other in the event of war
Final Preparations Before War Spanish Civil War – this was used for Italy and Germany to gain an alliance with Spain – 1936 – Spanish Fascist Francisco Franco was supported by Germans and Italians while he was fighting against the Republicans supported by Soviet Union – 1939 – Franco was in control of Spain Nonaggression Pact – signed in Summer of 1939 between Germany and Soviet Union – Soviets feared that France and England would not help them if attacked so they made a truce with Germany
World War II Begins September 1, 1939 – Germany attacks Poland – Used a battle tactic called blitzkrieg Blitzkrieg – lightning war – emphasized speed and close coordination between planes in the air and fast-moving forces on the ground. – Polish Forces had little they could do, but they did have aid of French and British September 3, 1939 – Britain and France declare war on Germany – Become known as the Allies
France Attacked Began with German invasion of Denmark and the Netherlands. – Gave Germany more ports for Navy May 10, 1940 – Germany invades France – Germany raced through Belgium with one force which the French tried to cut off – Second force moved through the Ardennes Forest which was undefended – June 22, 1940 – France surrenders to Germany – Dunkirk was the last hold out for allied troops and they had to be rescued by British ships
Battle of Britain Between August and October 1940 – Germans began bombing British cities and tried to take out the British Air Force – Goal was to soften Britain for a German invasion – London Blitz – bombing of London to terrorize the people of England began in fall of 1940 – Winston Churchill came to power in England in 1940 and he helped inspire the people to overcome the German attacks and held off German invasion – Germany never invaded – lost many planes
Germany Invades Soviet Union June 1941 – A frustrated Hitler has Germany break the nonaggression pact with Soviet Union and Germany invades – Caused severe losses for Soviet Troops but they never fell to Germany – By Winter of 1941 – German troops had not reached major cities and German troops did not reach major cities – stopped German progress
Japanese Aggression In The Pacific Japan had been attacking areas in Asia including China 1941 - Japan invades French Indochina – Wanted the rubber, oil, and other natural resources – U.S. banned sale of oil to Japan – goal was to slow Japanese military expansion Angered Japanese – they began to plan a way to punish U.S. They disguised their intentions with peace talks with U.S.
Pearl Harbor Designed by General Hideki Tojo Plans called for a surprise attack of the American Naval Base in Hawaii – Pearl Harbor Goal – severely damage or destroy the American Pacific Naval Fleet and keep them from being able to attack against Japan December 7, 1941 – attack on Pearl Harbor begins – Used hundreds of Japanese planes launched from Japanese Air-Craft Carriers – Result: Many American ships damaged or destroyed Destroyed many American planes on the ground Killed nearly 2400 Americans
American Response to Pearl Harbor Forced a change in attitude by Americans: – Many before Pearl Harbor wanted to maintain isolationism from the war overseas Isolationism – do not get involved in affairs of other nations Did not want a huge loss of life Still trying to recover from Depression – did not want outside issues to damage recovery – After Pearl Harbor: Americans demanded vengeance against Japan Thousands sign up for service December 8, 1941 – Roosevelt asks for and gets a declaration of war against Japan
Questions 1 of 3 What is meant by Lebensraum? Why was Hitler able to rebuild his military in Germany? What was the significance of the agreement between Germany and Britain in 1935? What areas did Germany take control of before 1939? What does the term annexation mean? What is appeasement?
Questions 2 of 3 What role did the Anti-Comitern Pact play in creating the Axis Powers? Who were the Axis Powers? Who was Francisco Franco? What was the impact of the Nonaggression Pact? What event started World War II? What is blitzkrieg? Explain how it was accomplished.
Questions 3 of 3 How long did it take Germany to conquer France? What was the Battle of Britain? What was the purpose of the London Blitz? Was the German invasion of the Soviet Union successful? Why do you feel the way you do? What American action led to Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? What was the results of the Pearl Harbor attack? How did American attitudes change after Pearl Harbor?