2Axis Aggression Preview Starting Points Map: Europe, 1930s Main Idea / Reading FocusGermany ExpandsMap: Axis AdvancesAlliances and Civil War
3Axis Aggression Preview, continued The War Begins Faces of History: Winston ChurchillJapan Attacks
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5Axis Aggression Main Idea Reading Focus In the late 1930s Germany, Italy, and Japan used military force to build empires. Their aggressive actions led to the outbreak of World War II.Reading FocusIn what ways did Germany expand in the late 1930s?What alliances did Axis nations make in the 1930s?How did the war begin?What were the causes and effects of Japan’s attack on the United States?
6Germany Expands After World War I Treaty of Versailles seriously damaged German economyAdolf Hitler came to powerPromised to restore Germany’s greatnessLebensraum, or “living room”Hitler wanted more territoryNeighbors aware of threatMemories of World War I still freshNo one willing to fight over words
7Rebuilding the German Military Hitler controlled German government by 1933Secretly rebuilt militaryUnchallenged—openly stated plan to re-arm GermanyClaimed resisting spread of communism—but empire buildingMilitarizing the RhinelandDirect action in 1936Armed force sent to the RhinelandFrench and British complained; no direct action takenGerman troops remained; Hitler grew bolder
8Annexing Austria Europeans eager to avoid war Hitler plotted his moves Target-AustriaGerman-speaking countryHitler’s birthplaceNazi supporters in AustriaAggressive movesHitler demanded Austrian officials accept annexation (Anschluss)Initial Austrian resistanceBritain and France did nothingMarch 1938-unopposed German forces take over AustriaHitler’s demands
9Threats to Czechoslovakia Another German-speaking populationSudetenland eager to be a part of GermanyHitler threatened the Czech governmentCzechs prepared for warAvoiding conflictSeptember 1938—meeting in MunichChamberlain (British) and Daladier (French) agreed not to block HitlerCzechs had no supportPolicy of appeasementAppeasement—giving in to aggressive demands in order to avoid warWinston Churchill opposed the policy“Peace for our time” according to Chamberlain
12Make GeneralizationsHow did the British and French respond to Germany’s expansion and aggression?Answer(s): followed a policy of appeasement, giving in to Hitler's demands to maintain peace
13Alliances and Civil War Hitler builds alliances with other totalitarian governments.Military force to achieve goalsAnti-Comintern PactGermany and JapanPrevent spread of communismOppose USSRItaly joins Axis Powers laterMilitary alliancePledge aid in event of warThe Axis formsPolitical conflict begins in 1936Italy and Germany support fascist NationalistsSoviet Union supports RepublicansNationalists win after years of fightingFrancisco FrancoFascist dictatorSpanish Civil War
14A Secret Deal with Stalin Germany and Soviet Union on opposing sides in Spanish Civil WarNo direct conflictAxis Powers united against Soviet UnionSoviet leader Joseph Stalin threatened by German expansionFrance and Britain discuss possible alliance with Soviet UnionStalin did not trust British or FrenchIn secret negotiations with GermansGerman-Soviet Nonaggression PactEach side agreed not to attack the other; allowed further German aggression in EuropeSecret section divided up territory in Eastern EuropeNews shocked British and French; Hitler definitely on the march
15Identify Supporting Details With whom did Hitler seek alliances in the late 1930s?Answer(s): Japan and Italy; he also signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union
16German troops in position The War BeginsSeptember 1, 1939Germany attacked PolandWorld War II beginsBlitzkrieg or “lightning war”Devastating effectsPolish air force destroyedSoldiers fought; no match for German forcesNo natural barriers in the waySupport for PolandBritain and France declared war on GermanyAllies gave no real helpPoland fell into German handsGerman troops in positionOn Germany’s western borderHitler eager for assault on FrancePlans for invasion made
171940–1941 Attack on France Battle for Britain Denmark and Norway captured; the Netherlands and Belgium followedTank attack through Ardennes; overwhelmed light resistance thereHeroic Dunkirk rescue; France surrendered in June 1940Battle for BritainGreat Britain stood alone against German war machine; Churchill now leaderRadar technology secret weapon for air defenseBritish stood firm during Battle of Britain; Hitler called off invasion plans
19Invasion of the Soviet Union June 1941, Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union had initial successesMajor goals of Leningrad and Moscow not reached before harsh Soviet winterSoviet armies had time to rebuild and would fight back
20With what events did the war begin? SequenceWith what events did the war begin?Answer(s): invasion of Poland, followed by the massing of German troops on its western border
21Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor Two-hour attack Japan’s alliance with Germany was seen as a sign of a war plan. Japan sent forces to Indochina to secure necessary resources of oil and rubber. Hideki Tojo held peace talks with the U.S. but planned for war.Surprise attack on U.S. Navy Pacific FleetDecember 7, 1941Fighters and bombers launched from carriersRaid a successPearl HarborMajor destructionHeavy casualties2,400 dead200 planes goneEight battleships sunkThree carriers survivedTwo-hour attack
22Isolationism Attack had profound effect Ended desire to stay out of Europe’s warWar declared on JapanGermany and Italy declare war on U.S.Allies vs. Axis
23Why did Japan attack the United States? Find the Main IdeaWhy did Japan attack the United States?Answer(s): American leaders banned the sale of oil to Japan, which threatened Japan's future plans in French Indochina.