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World War II Section 1: World War II Begins

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1 World War II Section 1: World War II Begins
Section 2: Mobilizing for War Section 3: The War in Europe Section 4: The War in the Pacific Section 5: Final Victory

2 SECTION 1 OBJECTIVES: 1-What parts of Europe did Germany conquer by the mid 1940’s? 2- How did President Roosevelt aid Britain while preserving United States neutrality? 3- What events led to the conflict between the United States and Japan?

3 Section I Vocabulary Munich Conference: a gathering in Munich in 1938 in which French and British leaders persuaded Czechoslovakia to return the Sudetenland to Germany.

4 Appeasement: The practice of giving into an aggressor in the hopes of preserving the peace.
Nonaggression pact: an agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union in which two countries pledged not to attach one another and to divide Poland between them. Blitzkrieg: a lightning war, or series of rapid attacks. Allies Powers: the Military alliance of Britain, France and the United States.

5 Maginot Line- wall along the French and Germany border

6 Battle of Britain: a series of German air raids on British
Lend-Lease Act: a law passed by Congress in 1941 that allowed the United States to loan money to Britain to buy war supplies Battle of the Atlantic: a battle in which the Allies and Germany fought over ocean trade routes in the Atlantic Atlantic Charter: an agreement issued by President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in 1941

7 1.Parts of Europe Conquered by Hitler by Mid-1940s
In April 1940 German troops occupied Denmark. In May 1940 Germany seized the Low Countries of Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.

8 Roosevelt Aids Britain During Neutrality
In 1939 Congress approved a “cash-and-carry system to supply the allies with weapons. Roosevelt swapped 50 US destroyers for 99 year leases on several of Britain’s navel bases in the Caribbean.

9 Conflicts between the United States and Japan
In July 1941 Japanese forces seized French Indochina leading Roosevelt to freeze Japanese funds and blocking the sale of products to Japan. On December 7, 1941 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.

10 Section 2 Objectives How did the United States mobilize for World War II? What effects did World War II have on civilian women and minorities? Why did the United States Government intern Japanese Americans during the war?

11 Section 2 Vocabulary War Productions Board: a government office in charge of changing regular factories into wartime factories and limiting the production of consumer goods. Selective Training and Service Act: a law that required men between the ages of 21 to 35 to register for the draft Fair Employment Practices Committee: a group created by President Roosevelt to prevent racial discrimination in war industries and government jobs

12 Braceros: Mexican workers who were allowed to move to the United States during World War II to fill the labor shortage in the Southwest. Zoot-suit riots: a disturbance that occurred in 1943 when sailors in Los Angeles attacked Mexicans wearing the baggy outfits known as zoot suits.

13 2.U.S. Prepares for War Production boomed as American factories turned out enormous quantities of war materials. The government expanded its role and increased its regulation of the economy. The War Productions Board (WPB) was created to oversee the conversion of factories to war production.

14 In 1940 Congress passed the Selective Training and Service Act- the 1st peacetime draft in US History requiring all men between the ages of 21 and 35 to register for the draft but later included men aged 18 to 36

15 Women during WWII Women replaced men in factories and business offices
Some 300,000 women worked in the armed forces, in organizations such as the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) and served as nurses.

16 Minorities during War II
African Americans migrated to the North to work in industry. Mexican Americans took advantage of wartime job opportunities. Braceros: Mexican workers from Mexico who were allowed to enter the U.S. to work in agricultural jobs.

17 Japanese American Interment
After Pearl Harbor, many Americans questioned the loyalty of the Japanese Issei- Immigrants born in Japan Nisei- full citizens born in the United States Fearing the possibility of spying or sabotage, in Feb 1942 the government began a process of internment, or forced relocation and imprisonment, of Japanese Americans.

18 Section 3 Objectives Why was the Allies’ North Africa campaign so important? What were the major turning points of the war in Europe? How did the Allies drive the Germans out of France?

19 Section 3 Vocabulary Battle of El Alamein: A battle fought between the Allies and the Axis Powers in Egypt in 1942; the Allies stopped Rommel’s advance in North Africa. Battle of Stalingrad: A battle in 1942 in which the Germans tried to unsuccessfully take over the Soviet city of Stalingrad.

20 D-Day: June 6, 1944: the day that thousands of Allied soldiers landed on the shores of Normandy in France to fight the Germans.

21 Battle of the Bulge: a battle in France in which German troops attacked Allied lines, causing a huge bulge in the lines.

22 3. Importance of the Allied North Africa Campaign
To control the Suez Canal- a vital Allied supply route To push the Germans out of Egypt and North Africa

23 Turning Points in Europe
The Battle of Stalingrad, January 1943, forced German troops to surrender and ended Hitler’s attempt to crush the Soviet Union. The D-Day invasion, June 6, 1944, led to the liberation of France. The Battle of the Bulge, Dec. 16, 1944, ended Germany’s ability to wage and offensive war.

24 Germans are Driven out of France
U.S. generals Omar Bradley and George Patton led allied forces in attacks on German troops in France. New allied forces landed in southern France and began to advance northward.

25 Section 4 Objectives Where did Japan attack after its bombing of Pearl Harbor? What three battles were the turning points of the war in the Pacific? How did the Allies advance toward Japan?

26 Section 4 Vocabulary Bataan Death March: an event in which the Japanese forced more than 70,000 American and Filipino prisoners to walk 65 miles to an internment camp.

27 Battle of Coral Sea: a battle in 1942 in which United States planes sank one Japanese ship and damaged another

28 Battle of Midway: a battle in 1942 in which U. S
Battle of Midway: a battle in 1942 in which U.S. planes sank four Japanese ships, successfully stopping the Japanese capture of Midway Island. Island-hopping: the strategy in which the Allies would take only important islands in the Pacific

29 Battle of Leyte Gulf: a battle in the Philippines in 1944 in which the Japanese navy tried unsuccessfully to block an Allied invasion Kamikaze: a Japanese tactic in which pilots would fly their planes filled with explosives straight at Allied ships off Okinawa.

30 4. Japan Advances across Pacific
By early 1942 Japan had seized Hong Kong, Singapore, Burma, and the Netherlands East Indies Japan also captured Guam, Wake Island, the Aleutian Islands of Kiska and Attu, and the Philippines

31 Three Major Turning Points in the Pacific
Battle of Coral Sea: Led by U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz who halted the Japanese advances in the Pacific Battle of Midway: Allied forced crippled the Japanese navy Guadalcanal: Allies won control of the island and stopped the Japanese from completing an airstrip there

32 Allied Advance Towards Japan
Allies planned to conquer one Pacific Island after another, gradually moving closer to Japan. Allies planned strategy of island hopping to gain bases from which they could bomb and later invade Japan. Allies invaded New Guinea, the Gilbert Islands, Marshall, Mariana, Volcano, Bonin Islands and the Marinas in 1943 to pave the way to begin bombing the Japanese mainland.

33 Section 5 Objectives How did the Allies force Germany and Japan to surrender? What were the human and economic costs of World War II? What events led to the Holocaust?

34 Section 5 Vocabulary Atomic bomb: A deadly nuclear weapon
Manhattan Project: A United States program to develop the atomic bomb

35 Holocaust: Nazi Germany’s attempt to kill the Jews of Europe
Genocide: the deliberate murder of an entire people

36 5. Final Victory & Consequences
The allies pushed toward Germany from the east and west forcing them to surrender. August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima August 9, 1945 second bomb dropped on Nagasaki Forced the Japanese to surrender Atomic Bomb: a weapon that produces tremendous power by splitting atoms.

37 Costs of the War @50 million people died- more than half of them civilians Millions more injured or left suffering from disease and malnutrition War devastated national economies in Europe and Asia

38 Food Production, industry, and transportation networks were destroyed in many areas
Millions of people were left homeless and lacking basic necessities such as food Much of the world’s great art and architecture was lost forever

39 The Holocaust Hitler and the Nazis used this plan to destroy the Jewish Population In January 1942, at the Wannssee Conference, the Nazi leaders agreed to a “final solution” to the Jewish question by using genocide.

40 Nazis planned to eliminate the Jews by placing them in death camps equipped with gas chambers to kill them.

41 Concentration Camps View pictures of Dachau Concentration Camp and complete Ann Frank project…(attached handout) It is important that we “ NEVER FORGET”

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