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The Contemporary World

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1 The Contemporary World
SSWH20 The student will examine change and continuity in the world since the 1960s. a. Identify ethnic conflicts and new nationalisms; include pan-Africanism, pan- Arabism, and the conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda. b. Describe the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 that produced independent countries; include Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Baltic States. c. Analyze terrorism as a form of warfare in the 20th century; include Shining Path, Red Brigade, Hamas, and Al Qaeda; and analyze the impact of terrorism on daily life; include travel, world energy supplies, and financial markets. d. Examine the rise of women as major world leaders; include Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi, and Margaret Thatcher. SSWH21 The student will analyze globalization in the contemporary world. a. Describe the cultural and intellectual integration of countries into the world economy through the development of television, satellites, and computers. b. Analyze global economic and political connections; include multinational corporations, the United Nations, OPEC, and the World Trade Organization.

2 Pan- Africanism p. 921, 923 In the 20th century, some African leaders believed in the dream of Pan-Africanism—the unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundaries In their view, all black African peoples shared a common identity Supported by several of the new African leaders

3 Pan Africanism Continued…
Organization of African Unity, founded by the leaders of 32 African states in 1963 was a concrete result of this belief 2002- The African Union replaced the OAU. The new 53 nation group aims to promote democracy and economic growth in the region.

4 Pan-Arabism p Promoted by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt Feb Egypt formally united with Syria in the United Arab Republic Nasser named the President of the new state Hoped the union would spread to all Arab states Other Arab leaders were suspicious of Pan-Arabism Syria withdrew in 1961; Nasser continued to work on behalf of Arab interests

5 Ethnic Conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina
1990- the Yugoslav republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina & Macedonia began to lobby for independence June 1991 Slovenia & Croatia declare their independence Early 1992, Serbian guns turn towards Bosnia Herzegovina By mid 1993, Serbian forces had acquired 70% of Bosnian territory Many Bosnians were Muslims, to them the Serbs followed a policy of Ethnic cleansing By 1995, 250,000 Bosnians had been killed and two million others were homeless.

6 Ethnic Conflict in Rwanda
Conflict between Hutus and Tutsis, two major ethnic groups In 1994, a Hutu rampage left some 500,000 Tutsi dead in Rwanda A Tutsi army then captured the capital of Rwanda About 2 million people fled to refugee camps in surrounding countries

7 Break up of the Soviet Union p. 877-878
One of Gorbachev’s biggest problems was the multiethnic nature of the Soviet Union 92 ethnic groups & 112 languages During , he struggled to deal with the problems brought on by his reforms After a failed attempt by conservatives to seize power by arresting Gorbachev

8 Break up of the Soviet Union Continued…
Soviet republics moved for complete independence Ukraine December 1, 1991 A week later the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, & Belarus announced that the Soviet Union ceased to exist December 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigned and Boris Yeltsin, the new President of Russia came to power

9 Terrorism in the 20th century

10 Shining Path p. 913 - 914 A radical communist guerilla group in Peru
Based in rural areas Killed mayors, missionaries, priests, and peasants Goal to smash authority and establish a classless society 1992 President suspended the constitution and began a campaign against Shining Path

11 Red Brigade Marxist-Leninist left wing terrorist group
Active in Italy in the 1970’s and 80’s Aim to force Italy to leave NATO Most famous for 1978 kidnap and murder of the former Italian Prime Minister, Aldo Moro Carried out approximately 14,000 acts of violence Founded by radical students

12 Hamas One of the 2 main Palestinian political groups in Israel
Since June 2007, in de facto control of the Gaza strip Founded in 1987 during the first Palestinian uprising and became more active after 2000 Refuses to acknowledge Israel’s right to exist & is responsible for many of the deadliest suicide attacks Increased popularity due to social programs such as health care centers & day cares

13 Al Qaeda p. 890 – 891 An extreme group of Muslims, often referred to as fundamentalist militants Hope to establish a pure Islamic society & therefore must drive Westerners out of the Middle East and other Islamic societies Responsible for attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon September 11, 2001 Suspected to be responsible for bombing of two US embassies in Africa in 1998 and the attack on the USS Cole in 2000.

14 Rise of women as major world leaders

15 Golda Meir May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978
One of the founders of the state of Israel Prime Minister of Israel March 1969 – April 1974 First and only female Prime Minister of Israel Convinced strong state of Israel was best hope for her people’s survival, but wanted peace with her Arab neighbors

16 Indira Gandhi p. 953 – 954 Prime Minister of India (1966 – 77; 1980 – 84) One of India’s most notable & controversial leaders Wanted to eradicate poverty, take her nation into the modern world and do it quickly! Faced problems of huge population growth and growing ethnic and religious strife Used military force against Sikh rebels who wanted Punjab independence As a result, two Sikh members of her bodyguard assassinated her in 1984

17 Margaret Thatcher p. 886 1979- Conservative Party came to power in Britain under Margaret Thatcher Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, & end inflation Improved economic situation in Britain but at cost of old industrial areas Dominated British politics of 1980’s In 1990 resigned after tax riots broke out

18 Globalization in the contemporary world

19 United Nations International organization established in 1945
Purpose- securing world peace Founded by 51 nations following WWII Now has 192 members UN Security Council (enforces UN decisions) – US, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and the People’s Republic of China Headquarters in New York Struggled to address issues of civil & ethnic strife

20 OPEC p. 932 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Created in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela Headquarters in Vienna, Austria Objective- to coordinate and unify petroleum policies among member nations in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers 12 member countries currently

21 World Trade Organization p. 878, 972
Since WWII, nations have developed a global economy 1995, World Trade Organization was established Trade agreements are made and upheld by its more than 140 members Criticized for placing commercial interests over environmental and health interests and for ignoring small and developing countries Only global international organization to deal with rules of trade among nations

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