Presentation on theme: "The Contemporary World"— Presentation transcript:
1The Contemporary World SSWH20 The student will examine change and continuity in the world since the 1960s.a. Identify ethnic conflicts and new nationalisms; include pan-Africanism, pan- Arabism, and the conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Rwanda.b. Describe the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 that produced independent countries; include Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Baltic States.c. Analyze terrorism as a form of warfare in the 20th century; include Shining Path, Red Brigade, Hamas, and Al Qaeda; and analyze the impact of terrorism on daily life; include travel, world energy supplies, and financial markets.d. Examine the rise of women as major world leaders; include Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi, and Margaret Thatcher.SSWH21 The student will analyze globalization in the contemporary world.a. Describe the cultural and intellectual integration of countries into the world economy through the development of television, satellites, and computers.b. Analyze global economic and political connections; include multinational corporations, the United Nations, OPEC, and the World Trade Organization.
2Pan- Africanism p. 921, 923In the 20th century, some African leaders believed in the dream of Pan-Africanism—the unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundariesIn their view, all black African peoples shared a common identitySupported by several of the new African leaders
3Pan Africanism Continued… Organization of African Unity, founded by the leaders of 32 African states in 1963 was a concrete result of this belief2002- The African Union replaced the OAU.The new 53 nation group aims to promote democracy and economic growth in the region.
4Pan-Arabism pPromoted by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser of EgyptFeb Egypt formally united with Syria in the United Arab RepublicNasser named the President of the new stateHoped the union would spread to all Arab statesOther Arab leaders were suspicious of Pan-ArabismSyria withdrew in 1961; Nasser continued to work on behalf of Arab interests
5Ethnic Conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina 1990- the Yugoslav republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina & Macedonia began to lobby for independenceJune 1991 Slovenia & Croatia declare their independenceEarly 1992, Serbian guns turn towards Bosnia HerzegovinaBy mid 1993, Serbian forces had acquired 70% of Bosnian territoryMany Bosnians were Muslims, to them the Serbs followed a policy of Ethnic cleansingBy 1995, 250,000 Bosnians had been killed and two million others were homeless.
6Ethnic Conflict in Rwanda Conflict between Hutus and Tutsis, two major ethnic groupsIn 1994, a Hutu rampage left some 500,000 Tutsi dead in RwandaA Tutsi army then captured the capital of RwandaAbout 2 million people fled to refugee camps in surrounding countries
7Break up of the Soviet Union p. 877-878 One of Gorbachev’s biggest problems was the multiethnic nature of the Soviet Union92 ethnic groups & 112 languagesDuring , he struggled to deal with the problems brought on by his reformsAfter a failed attempt by conservatives to seize power by arresting Gorbachev
8Break up of the Soviet Union Continued… Soviet republics moved for complete independenceUkraine December 1, 1991A week later the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, & Belarus announced that the Soviet Union ceased to existDecember 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigned and Boris Yeltsin, the new President of Russia came to power
10Shining Path p. 913 - 914 A radical communist guerilla group in Peru Based in rural areasKilled mayors, missionaries, priests, and peasantsGoal to smash authority and establish a classless society1992 President suspended the constitution and began a campaign against Shining Path
11Red Brigade Marxist-Leninist left wing terrorist group Active in Italy in the 1970’s and 80’sAim to force Italy to leave NATOMost famous for 1978 kidnap and murder of the former Italian Prime Minister, Aldo MoroCarried out approximately 14,000 acts of violenceFounded by radical students
12Hamas One of the 2 main Palestinian political groups in Israel Since June 2007, in de facto control of the Gaza stripFounded in 1987 during the first Palestinian uprising and became more active after 2000Refuses to acknowledge Israel’s right to exist & is responsible for many of the deadliest suicide attacksIncreased popularity due to social programs such as health care centers & day cares
13Al Qaeda p. 890 – 891An extreme group of Muslims, often referred to as fundamentalist militantsHope to establish a pure Islamic society & therefore must drive Westerners out of the Middle East and other Islamic societiesResponsible for attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon September 11, 2001Suspected to be responsible for bombing of two US embassies in Africa in 1998 and the attack on the USS Cole in 2000.
15Golda Meir May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978 One of the founders of the state of IsraelPrime Minister of Israel March 1969 – April 1974First and only female Prime Minister of IsraelConvinced strong state of Israel was best hope for her people’s survival, but wanted peace with her Arab neighbors
16Indira Gandhi p. 953 – 954Prime Minister of India (1966 – 77; 1980 – 84)One of India’s most notable & controversial leadersWanted to eradicate poverty, take her nation into the modern world and do it quickly!Faced problems of huge population growth and growing ethnic and religious strifeUsed military force against Sikh rebels who wanted Punjab independenceAs a result, two Sikh members of her bodyguard assassinated her in 1984
17Margaret Thatcher p. 8861979- Conservative Party came to power in Britain under Margaret ThatcherPledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, & end inflationImproved economic situation in Britain but at cost of old industrial areasDominated British politics of 1980’sIn 1990 resigned after tax riots broke out
19United Nations International organization established in 1945 Purpose- securing world peaceFounded by 51 nations following WWIINow has 192 membersUN Security Council (enforces UN decisions) – US, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and the People’s Republic of ChinaHeadquarters in New YorkStruggled to address issues of civil & ethnic strife
20OPEC p. 932 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Created in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and VenezuelaHeadquarters in Vienna, AustriaObjective- to coordinate and unify petroleum policies among member nations in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers12 member countries currently
21World Trade Organization p. 878, 972 Since WWII, nations have developed a global economy1995, World Trade Organization was establishedTrade agreements are made and upheld by its more than 140 membersCriticized for placing commercial interests over environmental and health interests and for ignoring small and developing countriesOnly global international organization to deal with rules of trade among nations