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Central Asia Struggles Why does it matter? The security issues in these nations pose a threat to world peace and security Why does it matter? The security.

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Presentation on theme: "Central Asia Struggles Why does it matter? The security issues in these nations pose a threat to world peace and security Why does it matter? The security."— Presentation transcript:

1 Central Asia Struggles Why does it matter? The security issues in these nations pose a threat to world peace and security Why does it matter? The security issues in these nations pose a threat to world peace and security

2 Freedom Brings Challenges 1991: Soviet Union collapses 15 new nations emerged Geographers: two regions Transcaucasian Republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia Central Asian Republics: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan 1991: Soviet Union collapses 15 new nations emerged Geographers: two regions Transcaucasian Republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia Central Asian Republics: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan

3 Economic Struggles Heavy reliance on USSR for financial support Central Asian Republics – USSR converted available farmland to grow white gold, cotton Soviets former southern countries: Best chance to build a prosperous economy based on OIL Heavy reliance on USSR for financial support Central Asian Republics – USSR converted available farmland to grow white gold, cotton Soviets former southern countries: Best chance to build a prosperous economy based on OIL

4 Ethnic/Religious Strife USSR kept a lid on ethnic hostilities USSR Break-up: led to tension between Armenia & Azerbaijan Conflict lasted from Territory of Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved USSR kept a lid on ethnic hostilities USSR Break-up: led to tension between Armenia & Azerbaijan Conflict lasted from Territory of Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved

5 Afghanistan Small mountainous nation Two high-profile wars: USSR & U.S. Long history of struggle: Russia – access to the Indian Ocean Britain – protect northern border of its Indian Empire Small mountainous nation Two high-profile wars: USSR & U.S. Long history of struggle: Russia – access to the Indian Ocean Britain – protect northern border of its Indian Empire

6 Afghanistan (cont.) 1919 – declared itself an independent nation Established a monarchy 1964 – devised a constitution which established a more democratic style of government Officials could NOT agree/people showed little interest Democratic system FAILED 1919 – declared itself an independent nation Established a monarchy 1964 – devised a constitution which established a more democratic style of government Officials could NOT agree/people showed little interest Democratic system FAILED

7 Pushing Back the Soviets During Cold War – Afghanistan remained neutral while receiving aid from both the U.S. & USSR 1973 – military leaders overthrew govt 1978 – rival group w/ strong Soviet ties takes control of the country Afghans believed that communist policies conflicted w/ Islamic teachings Resistance to communist regime came from the mujahideen – holy warriors USSR sent troops into Afghanistan to conquer mujahideen During Cold War – Afghanistan remained neutral while receiving aid from both the U.S. & USSR 1973 – military leaders overthrew govt 1978 – rival group w/ strong Soviet ties takes control of the country Afghans believed that communist policies conflicted w/ Islamic teachings Resistance to communist regime came from the mujahideen – holy warriors USSR sent troops into Afghanistan to conquer mujahideen

8 Soviet – Afghan War ( ) USSR – superior military force & advanced weaponry Afghan rebels – used land and guerilla tactics U.S. provided financial & military assistance After 10 years – USSR withdraws USSR – superior military force & advanced weaponry Afghan rebels – used land and guerilla tactics U.S. provided financial & military assistance After 10 years – USSR withdraws

9 Rise of the Taliban Taliban (conservative Islamic group) controlled 90% of country Northern Alliance controlled NW corner Taliban – positive aspects brought order to war-torn nation rooted out corruption promoted growth of business Taliban (conservative Islamic group) controlled 90% of country Northern Alliance controlled NW corner Taliban – positive aspects brought order to war-torn nation rooted out corruption promoted growth of business

10 Fall of the Taliban Taliban – negative aspects Extreme interpretation of Islamic law Restricted womens lives: forbidden to go to school or hold jobs Banned television, movies, modern music Punishment included: severe beatings, amputation, & execution Taliban – negative aspects Extreme interpretation of Islamic law Restricted womens lives: forbidden to go to school or hold jobs Banned television, movies, modern music Punishment included: severe beatings, amputation, & execution

11 Fall of the Taliban (cont.) Taliban – role in world terrorism Allowed groups to train in country Provided refuge for terrorists leaders (ex. Osama Bin Laden) Sept. 11 attacks – U.S. urged Afghanistan to turn over Bin Laden After refusal, US took military action U.S. drove Taliban out of power Taliban – role in world terrorism Allowed groups to train in country Provided refuge for terrorists leaders (ex. Osama Bin Laden) Sept. 11 attacks – U.S. urged Afghanistan to turn over Bin Laden After refusal, US took military action U.S. drove Taliban out of power

12 Challenges Ahead Hamid Karzai – new leader of Afghanistan, difficulty in creating a unified nation Rebuild a country devastated by 20 years of warfare Roughly a dozen different ethnic groups w/ distinct language and cultural patterns Hamid Karzai – new leader of Afghanistan, difficulty in creating a unified nation Rebuild a country devastated by 20 years of warfare Roughly a dozen different ethnic groups w/ distinct language and cultural patterns


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