Political Map of Serbia Ethnic Map of former Yugoslavia
Western Europe = Catholic, Protestant Eastern Europe = (Greek) Orthodox Middle East = Islam Greek Orthodox Church
Terrorists from the Black Hand assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Allies forced the diverse groups into Yugoslavia. The SERBS tended to dominate the new government. This was the “spark” that caused WWI.
Yugoslavia was attacked by the Germans in 1941. Many CROATS saw an opportunity for revenge and sided with the Nazis and massacred thousands of Serbs. 1942
During WWII, Marshall TITO defeated the Nazis. He became a dictator and later communist. His power kept peace between the ethnic groups. When Tito died in 1980, ethnic tension increased.
The economy collapsed, especially in Serbia. The Serbs chose to blame the Muslim Albanians living in the province of KOSOVO - the poorest of the Yugoslavs. The Serbs begin “cracking down” on all non-Serbian ethnic groups.
At a meeting to determine the future of Yugoslavia, Serb nationalism promoted by Slobodan Milosevic prompts the other regions to declare their independence from Yugoslavia. The new countries are Yugoslavia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Croatia, and Bosnia- Herzegovenia.
MILOSEVIC becomes the leader of Yugoslavia (mostly Serbian). Bosnian Serbs revolt against the Bosnian govt. because they do not want to live under a Muslim led govt. Civil War begins. Serbs are fighting against Bosnian Serbs and Croats. The United Nations sends peacekeeping forces and declares an arms embargo on Bosnia: no one may sell or give weapons to either side.
Milosevic ignores the embargo and gives weapons to the Serbs. Serbs begin ethnic cleansing: getting rid of an ethnic group by killing them or forcing them to leave an area.
The UN created so-called safe havens in 1993 and promised to protect the refugees. The Serbs attacked the safe havens, and NATO attacked the Serbs in response. In 1994, the Russian govt. warned that they would not support any more attacks on Serbs.
The UN lifts the arms embargo. Since the war is no longer going their way, the Serbs agree to negotiate a cease fire.
Representatives from Serbs, Croats, Bosnians and diplomats from the UN. It is now referred to as the Dayton Agreement. Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one country. Serbs govern the areas they controlled, and the Muslims govern the rest. US, British and French troops have been sent to Bosnia to enforce the agreement.
In the late 90s the Serbs in Yugoslavia attempted to push out the ethnic Muslim Albanians from the southern province of Kosovo. The local KLA could not resist. Ethnic hatred still runs deep, and some Kosovars have retaliated against Serbs. NATO bombed Yugoslavia from March to June of 1999 until the Serbs withdrew.
On trial for war crimes at the UN in the Hague, Netherlands. Defending himself against war crimes: Croatia 91-92-crimes against humanity; Bosnia 92-95- genocide; Kosovo 99- crimes against humanity - 300,000+dead
Serb refugees Mass graves Serb protestors KLA - Kosovo Liberation Army Flags on caskets Kosovar refugees returning
Kostunica Milosevic lost an election for president and then was turned over to the UN to be tried by the people of Yugoslavia in return for foreign aide. He is still popular with many Serbs. Kostunica is the new president of Serbia- Montenegro, the new name of Yugoslavia.
Conclusion Is conflict inevitable? Write a paragraph to complete this statement: “Conflict in the Balkans can/cannot be avoided, because...”