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The Imperative tense: Commands

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1 The Imperative tense: Commands
Spanish 3, Textbook pages

2 Commands allow you to give a direct order
Commands allow you to give a direct order. There are several kinds of commands: Formal (Usted and Ustedes) Informal (Tú and Vosotros/as) Nosotros/as Here we will only focus on Tú, Ud and Uds, positive and negative.

3 Formal commands Formation:
Affirmative and Negative formal commands are derived from the present subjunctive so they are formed by starting with the yo form of the present tense, and interchanging the – AR and –ER/ -IR endings. Él/ella/Ud endings will work for the formal UD command, and ellos/ellas/Uds endings will work for the Uds (or you plural) command. Present tense stem changes apply as well as any present tense verb that has an irregularity in the yo form.

4 Examples: Infinitive Yo form Present Alt. Ending UD command
Uds. command Hablar Hablo -e/-en Hable Ud. Hablen Uds Comer Como -a/-an Coma Ud. Coman Uds Cerrar Cierro Cierre Ud. Cierren Uds Tener Tengo Tenga Ud. Tengan Uds Conducir Conduzco Conduzca Conduzcan Dormir Duermo Duerma Ud Duerman Uds

5 Negative Formal Commands
Formation of Negative Commands: To make the command negative, just add the word “no” before the conjugated command. Example: ¡No hablen Uds. cuando la maestra está enseñando! (Don’t talk when the teacher is teaching!)

6 Irregular Formal Commands
Infinitive Ud. Command Uds. Command Ir (to go) Vaya Ud. Vayan Uds. Ser (to be) Sea Ud. Sean Uds. Estar (to be) Esté Ud. Estén Uds. Dar (to give) Dé Ud. Den Uds. Saber (to know) Sepa Ud. Sepan Uds.

7 Car/Gar/Zar Spelling change:
*Note that the following verbs are regular, but they have a spelling change in the command form. Infinitive Ud Command Uds. Command Tocar Toque Ud. Toquen Uds. Picar Pique Ud. Piquen Uds. Jugar Juegue Ud. Jueguen Uds. Pagar Pague Ud. Paguen Uds. Agregar Agregue Ud. Agreguen Uds. Empezar Empiece Ud. Empiecen Uds.

8 Informal Commands 1. Negative informal commands for tú and vosotros are derived from the present subjunctive. This means you start in the yo form of the present indicative, drop the “o” and add opposite endings. Examples: Vosotros No compres más. No compréis más. No digas eso. No digáis eso.

9 Informal negative commands
The endings for tú are: AR verbs- es ER and IR verbs- as The endings for the vosotros are: AR verbs- éis ER and IR verbs- áis

10 Irregular Tú negative commands
There are 6 irregular negative familiar commands: Ir – no vayas Dar- no des Ser – no seas Estar-no estés Saber- no sepas

11 Informal Affirmative Commands
The Affirmative informal commands for tú and vosotros(as) have their own endings. The affirmative informal commands are derived from the present indicative tú form minus the person ending –s. Present Ind. Command Meaning Contestas el teléfono. Contesta el teléfono. Answer the phone.

12 Tú affirmative commands
The endings are: AR verbs- a ER and IR verbs- e The irregular affirmative tú commands are Decir – Di Poner - Pon Tener – Ten Ser – Sé Venir – Ven Hacer- Haz Ir – Ve Salir- Sal

13 Placement of pronouns Pronouns (reflexive, indirect or direct) must be placed at the end and attached to an affirmative command. Watch your accents  Siéntate= sit down. Dámelo= give it to me Pronouns (reflexive, indirect or direct) must be placed before a negative command and is not attached. No te sientes. = Don’t sit down No me lo des. = Don’t give it to me.

14 Practice (Informal commands)
Infinitive + Tú Command - Tú Command Aprender Abrir Pensar Decir Tener Venir Empezar Ser Cortar Ir

15 Practice 3: Formal Commands
Infinitive Usted Ustedes Servir Querer Venir Doblar Escuchar Comer Poner Hacer Dormir Conocer *How would you make these commands negative?

16 Tarea: Textbook pages , EX 4-11

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