Presentation on theme: "A Local Conflict Goes Global. GPS Standards: SSWH16 The student will demonstrate an understanding of long term causes of World War I and its global impact."— Presentation transcript:
GPS Standards: SSWH16 The student will demonstrate an understanding of long term causes of World War I and its global impact. b. Describe the conditions on the war front for soldiers, including the Battle of Verdun. c. Explain the major decisions made in the Versailles Treaty, including German reparations and the mandate system that replaced Ottoman control. d. Analyze the destabilization of Europe in the collapse of the great empires, including the Romanov and Hapsburg dynasties.
M ilitarism A lliances N ationalism I mperialism A narchy (international)
Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.
Build up of large reserve armies Mobilization - organize resources for combat (triggers other nations mobilizing) Naval Expansion - William II (GR) fires Bismarck and expands navy wants to be equal to G.B. (most powerful) G.B. feels threatens, expands, develops new battleship – Dreadnought Conscription: calling up of civilians for military service. The idea was national security depended n a strong military.
Three Emperors’ League: (1881) Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary - doesn’t last b/c of A-H rivalry with Russia in Balkans Triple Alliance - (1882) Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary - attempt to isolate France Triple Entente - (1907) France, Russia, G.B. Entente: Friendly understanding between nations
French Nationalists sought revenge against Germany for loss of Alsace- Lorraine. a border province lost to the French during the Franco-Prussian war 1870-1. Slavic Nationalism - Pan-Slavism : Unify all Slavic people under one empire
Slavic Nationalism Slavic peoples in Austria-Hungary wanted their own land a southern-Slavic land or Yugoslavia. Serbia, one of the largest Slavic nation supported them. Worried Austria-Hungary; who feared this might spur more nationalistic feelings of Slavs in Austria-Hungary. 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Slavic territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nationalism Cont.
Serbia asked Russia for help. Weakened by the Russo- Japanese war. Russia instead made an agreement with Austria-Hungary and did nothing to help Serbia. Austria-Hungary moved before the deal was set and angered Russia. 1st Balkan war 1912 Goal was to acquire Albania which would give Serbia the water outlet they needed. Serbia won the war but did not gain Albania. 2nd Balkan war Albania gained their independence, frustrating Serbian ambitions once again. Russia called on again and still unable to assist. Embarrassed Russia. Big Brother Russia
Germany and France came close to war over control of Morocco Germany wanted to create Berlin to Baghdad Railway - caused resentment among British and Russians British feared interference with India and reduce traffic thru Suez Canal
International Anarchy Nations of Europe pursue policies without regard for the wishes of their neighbors Crisis - No international organization to monitor
Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of A-H (June 28, 1914) by Gavrilo Princip - member of Serbian nationalist group “Black Hand” -or Union Of Death
Ferdinand planned to give Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina a voice in the gov’t equal to that of Austro- Hungarians This threatened the movement for a separate Slavic state
A-H hold Serbians responsible A-H seeks assurance (backup) from Germany in event of war Germany issues “Blank Check” to A-H William II gives full support to any actions A-H might take against Serbia
A-H issues ultimatum (set of final conditions that must be accepted to avoid severe consequences) to Serbia Demands that Serbia allow A-H officials into country to suppress all subversive movements & conduct investigation Gives Serbia 48 hours to agree or face war Serbia does not agree to all parts A-H declares war on Serbia! (July 28, 1914) Tensions Build!!
Russia (friend of the Serbs) mobilizes troops along borders of Germany & A-H Germany warns Russia to stop - they don’t! Germany issues ultimatum to France – 18 hours to decide if it would support Russia – France said it would support Russia
Germany declares war on Russia (Aug 1, 1914) Germany declares war on France (Aug 3, 1914) Great Britain still hoped to remain neutral and not go to war, but…
Germany demands passage across Beligium to fight France (*Part of Schlieffen Plan) British protest demand made by Germany upon neutral nation of Belgium 1839 Treaty signed by G.B., Russia, France & Germany guaranteed Belgium’s neutrality Germany Invades Belgium!
Germany invades Beligium G.B. demands they withdraw Germany responds calling treaty, “a scrap of paper” G.B. declares war on Germany (Aug 4, 1914)
General Schlieffen 1905 Germany’s invasion of Belgium was part of this plan Germany had enemies to East & West & did not want to fight a war on both fronts at the same time Believed Russia would be slow to mobilize and that they could fight & defeat France (W. Front) first in 6 weeks & then fight Russia on Eastern Front
Saw the problems faced by fighting a two front war. Thought that Russia would be slow to mobilize so the idea/plan was to make it to Paris, through Belgium in 6 weeks then go east against Russia before they could mobilize. Problems with the Plan in WW I Belgium more heavily fortified gave strong resistance. Russia Mobilized quickly. The British and French fought well The French attacked from Alsace-Lorraine Schlieffen Plan
Both sides thought the war would be a quick ordeal… Kaiser told his soldiers, “you’ll be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees.” They underestimated the role industrialization would play in this war. French troups marched off shouting, “We’ll be home by Christmas”
Russia had to support Serbia because they did not and could not before in the Balkan wars. Russia knew Germany would fight with Austria-Hungary but was assured that France would fight Germany alongside Russia. July 30th 1914 Czar Nicholas II mobilized the Russian army against Austria-Hungary and Germany, Austria-Hungary did the same against Russia; France and Britain were then forced to show their hand. July 31st 1914 Germany issued an ultimatum to Russia and France and demanded them to demobilize. France had 18 hours to comply or be forced to fight. The British wanted to negotiate and Germany hoped they would. A European War Key Points
Central powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (what was left) and Bulgaria. Allied Powers: Britain, Russia, Serbia, Belgium, later Japan and Montenegro. Changing face of Alliances
Calvary and horse drawn carriages gave way to motorized vehicles. Larger, more powerful armored ships. Poison Gas, Machine Gun, Tank, Submarines also first used in warfare. The length of the war was underestimated; there were shortages and only enough ammunition for 6 months. Changes in Warfare of old
Marne September 5th The French pushed the Germans back 50 miles from Paris, the morale was high. Battle of the Marne MapBattle of the Marne Map Significance of the Battle was the abandonment of the Schlieffen Plan. This would not be a quick or easy war. Key Point: Russia sent troops to help France before they had totally mobilized. Russia attacked East Prussia and diverter the attack on France.
The battle of the Marne as seen in a French news-magazine
Terrible Russian defeat, which they never fully recovered from. Germans circled the Russian troops; 30,000 Russian troops killed 92,000 prisoners, the Germans lost 13,000 (Map)(Map)
“The Race to the Sea” Germans and the Allies both trying to get to the North Sea to out Flank the other, by November 1914 the war reached a stalemate or deadlock. As the war progressed there was a need for more ships, guns ammunition and food. Mobilization of Civilians; Conscription. Use of propaganda (portraying the enemy as beastly or inhuman) News papers used big headlines for small or insignificant battles.
“The Race to the Sea” Germans and the Allies both trying to get to the North Sea to out Flank the other, by November 1914 the war reached a stalemate or deadlock.
As the war progressed there was a need for more ships, guns ammunition and food. Mobilization of Civilians; Conscription. Use of propaganda (portraying the enemy as beastly or inhuman) News papers used big headlines for small or insignificant battles.
No Mans Land lay between, with barbed wire and land mines. Weeks spent in the trenches days of boredom mixed with terror form constant bombing. Knee deep in muddy water led to dysentery and…
A fungal infection of the feet brought on by prolonged exposure to damp, cold conditions allied to poor environmental hygiene. Its effects on armies - of all sides - during the early stages of trench warfare, before trench conditions were much improved, could be severe. Some 20,000 casualties resulting from trench foot were reputed to have been suffered by the British Army alone during the close of 1914. Patients sometimes had to have toes amputated (following gangrene) such were the effects of the condition.
British Soldiers in gas masks with machine gun French Trench yes I know it rhymes Russian Soldier Caught in No-mans Land
In Flanders Fields In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved, and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields. — John McCrae "In Flanders Fields" is one of the most famous poems about World War I, and has been called "the most popular poem" produced by the war. It is written in the form of a French rondeau. Canadian physician and Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae wrote it on May 3, 1915, after he witnessed the death of his friend, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer, the day before. The poem was first published on December 8, that year in Punch magazine.poemsWorld War IrondeauCanadianJohn McCraeMay 31915 December 8Punch
Churchill headed the Navy and saw the futility of trench warfare but also the need to supply Russia. He favored an offensive on the Dardanelle straits which Turkey Controlled; this strait was the only reasonable means to strengthened Serbia and Russia with supplies. The idea was that the allied could then take Constantinople and take the Ottomans out of the war. Initially the offensive was working but poor planning and coordination foiled the plan. The battle of Gallipoli drove the allies back and forced them to end the campaign. The Turks had a chance to get into entrenched fortified positions. It was impossible to get past them, but many men, mostly Australian and New Zealand troops, were sacrificed in the attempt.
German attacked France. French Gen. Petain stated that “they shall not pass” as he and his men held off the German offensive for 6 months. The Germans abandoned the campaign. Bloody battle half a million dead on both sides. Dead Germans At Verdun
The British offensive at the Somme River Valley cost over 1,000,000 casualties The result was a gain of a mere 6 miles along a 25 foot long stretch of the western front. British offensive at the Somme Germans loose 500,000 men, British 400,000 and the French 200,000 British introduced the Tank, did not help during the battle, was unused ineffectively they were too slow and clumsy.
German and A-H tried to get Russia out of the war. The Russians had taken huge losses in number of men killed and weapons lost as well as land losses equal to the size of France. The Allies promised Russia Constantinople and the Dardanelles after the war. Russia reorganized their army, attacked Germany with little luck but was successful in attacking A-H. The Russians capture cities and hundreds of thousands of troops but paid the price losing most weapons and a million troops were killed. Their continued fighting made Germany split their forces.
British determined to keep shipping lines open and to keep the Germans from invading Great Britain. Germans wanted to disrupt these lines. Both depended on the sea for supplies and food. Britain blockaded all German controlled ports at the beginning of the war. Germany got their supplies through neutral countries, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Germany protested blockades and said they violated international law and called it a “hunger blockade”
Germans introduced submarine warfare. At first the U-boats struck only military ships but in 1915 they began to strike civilian and commercial ships believed to be carrying military goods. May 1915 Germans sink the British passenger liner Lusitania; 1200 killed including 120 Americans. Germany said the Lusitania was carrying weapons. After more sinkings President Woodrow Wilson in March of 1916 issued an ultimatum to the Germans, threatening to sever diplomatic relations. The Germans responded by stopping unrestricted sub warfare for a while. The only major battle between the British and German fleets occurred in May of 1916. Battle of Jutland off the coast of Denmark, both sides claimed victory but the battle left the Brits in control of the seas. U14
American public opinion divided about the war. Ex. Many Irish-Americans were anti-British and many German-Americans sided with the Central Powers, other Americans, Scots, English and Scot-Irish favored the Allies. Most Americans agreed with Wilson that the war was a European conflict. Even events like the Lusitania did not push the U.S. into the conflict. Isolationism: stay out of European affairs.
The Germans believe that they needed to break the British blockade at all cost and resumed unrestricted sub-warfare. On February 1st 1917 Germany announced they would sink any merchant ship headed to Britain or Western Europe. Wilson then broke off diplomatic ties with Germany.
Tensions between the two countries grew worse in March 1917 when U.S. news papers printed the Zimmerman Telegram. A message from the German Foreign minister to his ambassador in Mexico. The telegram promised that if Mexico’s support they will help Mexico regain New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. The British passed the telegram on to the U.S. which fueled anti- German sentiment.
Tensions between the two countries grew worse in March 1917 when U.S. news papers printed the Zimmerman Telegram. A message from the German Foreign minister to his ambassador in Mexico. The telegram promised that if Mexico’s support Germany they would help Mexico regain New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. The British passed the telegram on to the U.S. which fueled anti-German sentiment.
After the sinking of 4 American merchant ships; President Wilson on April 2, 1917, asked congress to declare war on Germany to make the “world safe for democracy”. America entered the war with financial and military support.
By the time the U.S. entered the war European nations have been fighting for 3 years with losses totaling more than the wars of the previous 300 years combined. War effected not only the soldiers but civilians living in towns and cities. No longer were wars just fought between two groups on a field. Total War: governments in France, Britain, Russia, Germany and Austria put all of their efforts toward winning the war. Governments took control of the economy and told factories what to produce in an effort to assist the in the war effort. Results: Unemployment was almost wiped out, everyone had a job Goods and items were rationed, giving more to the essential war needs.
Rationing led to unrest in Russia forcing them to withdraw from the war in 1917. Primed for revolution in Russia. See Book page() Russia was war weary and had lost 5.5 million soldiers. Led to Vladimir I. Lenin taking power after the October revolution of 1917 and thus ending Russian involvnemt in the war and signing a peace treaty with Germany.
By spring 1918 the Germans now concentrating their troops only on the western front made a march to Paris getting within 40 miles. The German army was weary and weakened. 140,000 U.S. troops aided the allies in fighting off the Germans in the 2nd battle of the Marne. 2 Million more American troops came in to play and slowly advanced toward Germany. The Central Powers fall apart the Turks and Austrians surrender, the people turn on Wilhelm II and he steps down, Germany is declared a Republic and signs an armistice, an agreement to stop fighting.
Allies met and debated, President Wilson, Clemenceau of France, David George of England and Vittorrio Orlando of Italy. Jan 1918, Wilson unveils his 14 Points plan. Main idea was Self Determination, people deciding what type of government they would have. Points include: no secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced size of navy and armies. Proposed a General Association of Nations i.e. the League of Nations to negotiate conflicts Germany lost their territories in Africa and the Pacific, which became mandates governed by the L of N.
British and French wanted Germany to pay reparations and be stripped of military power. Adopted the 14 Points. Including League of Nations. Germany lost substantial territory, restricted military operations and weapons “war guilt” clause Germany had to pay back England and France
From parts of A-H new countries were created. Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia all independent countries. Ottomans only kept what is today Turkey. Ottoman lands in SW Asia became Mandates not independent countries Palestine, Iraq and Transjordan to the British and Syria and Lebanon to France. Russia who left the party early lost lands to Poland and Romaina. Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania formerly part of Russia became independent nations.
The U.S. rejected the Treaty Versailles. Many in the U.S. rejected Wilson’s League of Nations idea, rather still clung to Isolationism. The U.S. worked out it’s own treaty with Germany later on. Mandates were ran like the old imperialist rule, displeased the people living there. Japan and Italy both Allied powers gained little land etc. The War Guilt Clause left a legacy of bitterness and hatred in the hearts of the German people which in turn would lead to …..