Presentation on theme: "Washington Heads the New Government Chapter 6, Section 1 Presidential Mansion, PhiladelphiaWashington’s Inauguration."— Presentation transcript:
Washington Heads the New Government Chapter 6, Section 1 Presidential Mansion, PhiladelphiaWashington’s Inauguration
The New Government Takes Shape (pg. 182) The Electoral College unanimously elected George Washington as the first U.S. President on February 14, 1789.Electoral College
The Electoral College The framers of the Constitution established the Electoral College to elect the president and the vice president (in part, because they did not trust the general public to elect competent leaders). The number of a state’s electors is equal to the state’s representatives in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The candidate with the most votes would become president and the runner up would be vice president. In 1804, the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution changed the Electoral College and required separate ballots for president and vice president.
Setting Precedents The Constitution provides a framework, not a detailed blueprint for government. Congress and the President had to make many practical decisions, with no previous examples to follow. Instead, their decisions would set precedents for future leaders. “We are in a wilderness without a single footstep to guide us.” -James Madison
Example: Article III (page 162 – 163) Section 1. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
Judiciary Act of 1789 One of the first acts passed by Congress and signed into law by President Washington. Among other things, the act – set the number of Supreme Court Justices at 6 (1 chief justice and 5 associate justices) – set up 13 district courts – created the Office of Attorney General, who would represent the United States before the Supreme court
Judicial Power vs. Judicial Review What is judicial review? Is it the same as judicial power? The Constitution gives the Supreme Court judicial power, but does the Constitution give the Supreme Court the power of judicial review? Why is Marbury v. Madison such an important case when it comes to judicial review? Why is judicial review, although not mentioned in the Constitution, an important activity of the Supreme Court?
Example: Article II (pages 160 – 163) Section 2.1 The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
Executive Departments Congress created 3: – Department of State – deals with foreign affairs – Department of War – deals with military matters – Department of the Treasury – handles nation’s finances
Setting Precedents Washington chose to appoint experienced, qualified people to lead executive departments. He met with them in person on a regular basis. James Madison began to refer to this group as the President’s “Cabinet”
Split in Washington’s Cabinet Alexander Hamilton Secretary of Treasury Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State
Hamilton vs. Jefferson Hamilton Favors strong central government Economy based on shipping and manufacturing Loose interpretation of the Constitution Pay foreign debt and assume states’ debt Close relationship with Britain Jefferson Favors strong state and local governments Economy based on farming Strict interpretation of the Constitution Pay foreign debt only Close relationship with France
Hamilton vs. Jefferson The conflict between these Hamilton and Jefferson led to the creation of the nation’s first political parties. Those who sided with Jefferson became known as the Democratic-Republicans. Supporters of Hamilton were called Federalists.
Important Clarification! The federalists who argued in favor of the ratification of the Constitution are not necessarily the same people who formed the Federalist Party in the 1790s. James Madison, for example, was a “federalist” (in favor of ratification). But in the debate between Hamilton and Jefferson, Madison sided with Jefferson and joined the Democratic-Republicans. In addition, Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans are neither the Democrats NOR the Republicans that exist today!