Presentation on theme: "Washington Heads the New Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Washington Heads the New Government Chapter 6, Section 1Washington’s InaugurationPresidential Mansion, Philadelphia
2 The New Government Takes Shape (pg. 182) The Electoral College unanimously elected George Washington as the first U.S. President on February 14, 1789.
3 The Electoral College Page 144, 160 The framers of the Constitution established the Electoral College to elect the president and the vice president (in part, because they did not trust the general public to elect competent leaders).The number of a state’s electors is equal to the state’s representatives in the House of Representatives and the Senate.The candidate with the most votes would become president and the runner up would be vice president.In 1804, the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution changed the Electoral College and required separate ballots for president and vice president.Page 144, 160
4 Setting PrecedentsThe Constitution provides a framework, not a detailed blueprint for government.Congress and the President had to make many practical decisions, with no previous examples to follow.Instead, their decisions would set precedents for future leaders.“We are in a wilderness without a single footstep to guide us.”-James Madison
5 Example: Article III (page 162 – 163) Section 1. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.How many Justices should sit on the Supreme Court?How many “inferior” courts do we need?
6 Judiciary Act of 1789One of the first acts passed by Congress and signed into law by President Washington.Among other things, the actset the number of Supreme Court Justices at 6 (1 chief justice and 5 associate justices)set up 13 district courtscreated the Office of Attorney General, who would represent the United States before the Supreme court
7 Judicial Power vs. Judicial Review Article III: Constitutional Insight (page 163)What is judicial review? Is it the same as judicial power?The Constitution gives the Supreme Court judicial power, but does the Constitution give the Supreme Court the power of judicial review?Why is Marbury v. Madison such an important case when it comes to judicial review?Why is judicial review, although not mentioned in the Constitution, an important activity of the Supreme Court?
8 Example: Article II (pages 160 – 163) Section 2.1 The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.What executive departments?
9 Executive Departments Congress created 3:Department of State – deals with foreign affairsDepartment of War – deals with military mattersDepartment of the Treasury – handles nation’s finances
10 Setting PrecedentsWashington chose to appoint experienced, qualified people to lead executive departments.He met with them in person on a regular basis.James Madison began to refer to this group as the President’s “Cabinet”
11 Washington’s “Cabinet” Thomas JeffersonHenry KnoxNow & Then Page 183Alexander HamiltonEdmund Randolph
12 Split in Washington’s Cabinet Alexander HamiltonSecretary of TreasuryThomas JeffersonSecretary of State
13 Hamilton vs. Jefferson Favors strong central government Economy based on shipping and manufacturingLoose interpretation of the ConstitutionPay foreign debt and assume states’ debtClose relationship with BritainFavors strong state and local governmentsEconomy based on farmingStrict interpretation of the ConstitutionPay foreign debt onlyClose relationship with France
14 Hamilton vs. JeffersonThe conflict between these Hamilton and Jefferson led to the creation of the nation’s first political parties.Those who sided with Jefferson became known as the Democratic-Republicans.Supporters of Hamilton were called Federalists.
15 Important Clarification! The federalists who argued in favor of the ratification of the Constitution are not necessarily the same people who formed the Federalist Party in the 1790s.James Madison, for example, was a “federalist” (in favor of ratification). But in the debate between Hamilton and Jefferson, Madison sided with Jefferson and joined the Democratic-Republicans.In addition, Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans are neither the Democrats NOR the Republicans that exist today!