2 Structure of the Constitution The Constitution of the United Statesorganizes the basic political institutions of the countryIntroduction to the Constitution is the PreambleOutlines the goals of the government7 articles that are split into sectionsContains 27 amendmentsDivides powers between the nation and the statesDivides the government into 3 separate branchesCreates separation of powersProvides checks and balancesIt gives us a framework to build and design our government. Each branch can have checks on the other branch in order to balance out that power, and keep one brand from not getting too strong.
3 Article 1: Legislative Branch The legislative branchMakes the lawsBroken into 10 sectionsCongressHouse of repsSenateElections and SessionsHousekeepingPay and PrivilegesLegislationEnumerated PowersRestrictions on CongressRestrictions on the statesThe legislative branch is the branch that makes the laws. Now this is the one where the representatives, the senators and the representatives in Congress are there to represent, and make laws for the people. So the founding fathers put this up front, Article I. It is the first thing we talk about, because it is dealing with the representatives of the people. And housekeeping is not taking out the trash, but what are our procedures. How do we run our meetings? How a bill is introduced, and later passes through both chambers. Now these are powers that are given specifically to Congress by the Constitution. And one of the big ones you might think of this is war.
4 Article 2: Executive Branch Enforces the laws4 sectionsPresident and Vice PresidentPresidential PowersExecutive Responsibility(enforce laws/pass treaties)ImpeachmentWhat is the process to get rid of a official, not only in the executive branch, but in Congress, on the Supreme Court.
5 Article 3: Judicial Branch Interprets the laws3 sectionsFederal courtsSupreme Court is the supreme law of the land, or the highest court in the landJurisdiction and judicial reviewsTreasonIt was it was a little bit weaker, mainly because we were afraid. Our founding fathers were afraid of a strong judiciary siding with the executive branch, because in the past a strong judiciary had always sided with the king. What jurisdiction is, it gives the Supreme Court the ability to look at any case that deals with the constitution. But the fact that the Supreme Court has jurisdiction over any constitutional case will allow judicial review to happen, as we'll get to in the next section. The only crime that is specifically outlined in the Constitution, in Article III, section 3.
6 Articles 4-7: The Federal System #1: Full faith and Credit#2:Privileges and Immunities#3: Equal Footing#4: The Guarantee ClauseArticle 5:Amending the ConstitutionArticle 6:The Supreme law of the landArticle 7:RatificationAmendments:Changes to the ConstitutionFirst 10 aka. Bill of Rights#1: Meaning that laws in other states have to be respected. #2: Citizens of one state are protected when they go into others. #3: No one's status is larger or more powerful than another. #4: The guarantee clause guaranteed a republican government will be in the states. Article VI is the Supremacy Clause where the Constitution is the supreme law of the land. Article VII we wrote the Constitution, the founding fathers at the Constitutional Convention, then they put in Article VII what needs to be done to pass this and make it official. Amendments are changes to the Constitution The first 10 are known as the Bill of Rights. Those are James Madison's creations to protect our liberties and freedoms.
7 Review The Constitution is Composed of Preamble Articles 1-7 Bill of rights/amendmentsArticles 1-3Legislative branchExecutive BranchJudicial BranchArticles 4-7Making the Federal system work
8 Separation of Powers in the Constitution Legislative BranchMakes lawsArticle 1#1: all legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress, which consists of a Senate and a House of Rep.sEnforces lawsExecutive BranchArticle 2#1: The executive power shall be vested in a President of the USAInterprets lawsJudicial BranchArticle 3#1: The judicial power of the US, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish
9 Article 1: Legislative Branch Powers and functions given to the legislative branch include:Lay and collect taxesBorrow moneyRegulate commerce(interstate)Coin moneyEstablish post officesDeclare warRaise and support the militaryMake all “necessary and proper”(This is known as the Elastic Clause) lawsThey coin money, the US Mint, for the dollars and the coins. So when we talk about supporting the military, what you are generally talking about is money, paying for it, funding it. The Elastic Clause was written in there to give the Constitution, to give lawmakers, the ability to stretch the interpretation of the Constitution as needed throughout time, as the country continues to grow.
10 Article 2: Executive Branch Powers and functions given to the Executive branch include:Commander-in-chief of the Army and NavyGranting pardonsMaking treatiesAppointing ambassadors(cabinet heads, judges to the Supreme Court)Make temporary appointments to offices that require Senate approvalDeliver State of the Union message(to the Senate to keep them informed)“take care that the laws be faithfully executed”The President's job, the executive branch's job, to enforce laws.
11 Article 3: Judicial Branch Powers and functions given to the Judicial branch include:Right to handle “cases arising under this Constitution”Judicial reviewPower to void lawsHandle cases arising under the Constitution. Not a lot is said about the judiciary. It was left a little vague as to what its role would be. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall. And now he, when you go to Washington, DC, if you go to the Supreme Court building, right inside there's a huge statue of John Marshall. He is the Supreme Court justice, the chief justice who gives the Supreme Court its identity through an 1803 known as Marbury v. Madison. His ruling in this case sets the court up for what they're going to do from 1803 up until present day. The ruling in the Marbury v. Madison case established judicial review. The court now, the Supreme Court has the chance, the opportunity, the power, to review laws passed by the legislative branch, or executive orders, executive actions.
13 Checks and Balances Legislative Checks on executive branch Impeachment Override president vetoes(2/3 majority)Senate approve president appointmentsSenate approve treatiesDeclare warEnact taxes & allocate fundsPresident report on the state of the Union to CongressChecks on Judicial branchSenate approves federal judgesInitiate constitutional amendments(21)Set jurisdiction of courtsChecks on itselfBills must be passed by both chambers of CongressHouse must originate revenue billsNeither chamber may adjourn for than 3+ days without consent of the other
14 Checks and Balances Executive Checks on legislative branch President has veto powerCall special sessions of CongressRecommend lawsPresident is commander-in-chief of the militaryChecks on Judicial branchAppoint judgesPardon for federal crimes
15 Checks and BalancesJudicialChecks on legislative branchJudicial reviewDeclare laws unconstitutionalSeats are held on “good behavior”Compensation can’t be diminishedChecks on executive branchDeclare executive orders unconstitutionalChief justice presides during impeachment of the presidentLifetime appointmentsBill of Rights: The first ten amendments to the Constitution.checks and balances:Limits imposed on each branch of government by giving each branch a measure of influence over the other branches.separation of powers: The doctrine that individual branches of government have unique powers that the other branches cannot infringe upon.void: To invalidate, nullify.Interstate: So state-to-state, also foreign commerce.Commerce: is trade.
17 The first 10 amendments to the Constitution are known as __________. the Bill of Rights
18 The introduction of the US Constitution is called the Preamble
19 All of the following statements about Article II of the Constitution are TRUE except: Article II is broken into ten sections.
20 The __________ in the Constitution gives Congress the flexibility to make all “necessary and proper” laws.D.Elastic Clause
21 All of the following statements about the Constitution are TRUE except: It divides powers between the nation and states.C.It divides the government into three separate branches.D.It organizes the basic political parties found within the country.
22 What is judicial review? The power of the Judicial Branch to review laws, Executive orders, and Executive acts to ensure that they are Constitutional.
23 The introduction to the Constitution is called __________. B.the Preamble
24 All of the following statements about Article I of the Constitution are TRUE except: D.Article I gives the Senate authority over the House of Representatives.
25 Which document, signed by King John in 1215, was important for the United States government? the Magna Carta
27 Bill of Rights: The first ten amendments to the Constitution. checks and balances:Limits imposed on each branch of government by giving each branch a measure of influence over the other branches.separation of powers: The doctrine that individual branches of government have unique powers that the other branches cannot infringe upon.void: To invalidate, nullify.Interstate: So state-to-state, also foreign commerce.Commerce: is trade.
28 #1: Meaning that laws in other states have to be respected #1: Meaning that laws in other states have to be respected. #2: Citizens of one state are protected when they go into others. #3: No one's status is larger or more powerful than another. #4: The guarantee clause guaranteed a republican government will be in the states.Article VI is the Supremacy Clause where the Constitution is the supreme law of the land.Article VII we wrote the Constitution, the founding fathers at the Constitutional Convention, then they put inArticle VII what needs to be done to pass this and make it official.Amendments are changes to the Constitution The first 10 are known as the Bill of Rights. Those are James Madison's creations to protect our liberties and freedoms.