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ATA 522 BOĞAZİÇİ UNIVERSITY 2007 Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak www.ata.boun.edu.tr.

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Presentation on theme: "ATA 522 BOĞAZİÇİ UNIVERSITY 2007 Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak www.ata.boun.edu.tr."— Presentation transcript:

1 ATA 522 BOĞAZİÇİ UNIVERSITY 2007 Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak

2 Week I The Young Turks and the Unionists: Nationalist Response to Nationalisms Genç [Jön]Türkler - Osmanlı İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti The Young Turk Revolution of 1908; the Ottoman Parliament; the Balkan Wars, Word War I; the National Economy; the Emancipation of Woman Roderic H. Davison, “From Empire to Republic, ,” in Turkey, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1968, pp Feroz Ahmad, “The Constitutional Revolution, Reform, and War, ,” in Turkey – The Quest for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld, 2003, pp

3 Week II War and Peace: A Path towards a Homogeneous Nation State The Fall of the Ottoman Empire; the Armistice; The Sèvres Treaty; The Struggle for Independence; the Lausanne Treaty. Cihan Harbi – Mütareke – Milli Mücadele Zafer Toprak, “Nationalism and Economics in the Young Turk Era ( ),” in Industrialisation, Communication et Rapports Sociaux en Turquie et en Mediterranée Orientale,(eds. Jacques Thobie et Salgur Kançal) Paris; L’Harmattan, 1994, s A. L. Macfie, “The End of the Ottoman Empire,” in The End of the Ottoman Empire, , Longman, 1998, pp

4 Week III From Empire to Nation: The Emergence of Modern Turkey The 1924 Constitution; the Republican People’s Party; Early Reforms; the Legal Reception Movement; the Great Speech and the Congress of 1927; the Uprisings Teşkilat-ı Esasiye Kanunu – Cumhuriyet Halk Fırkası [Partisi] – Nutuk (1927) Bernard Lewis, “The Kemalist Republic,” chapter in The Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1968, pp Feroz Ahmad, “The Kemalist Era, ” in Turkey – The Quest for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld, 2003, pp

5 Week IV Reforms and The Single-Party Era The 1931 and 1935 Congresses of the RPP; The Opposition; New Cultural Institutions and Reforms; Turkey on the Eve of World War II. Terakkiperver Fırka – 1931 – 1935 Kurultayları –Serbest Fırka Kemal Karpat, “The Establishment and Development of the Republic,” chapter in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a Multi- Party System, by Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp: Kemal Karpat, “The Economic and Social Transformation,” chapter in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a Multi-Party System, by Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp:

6 Week V Turkish Economy and Society in the Inter-War Years : İzmir Economic Congress; National Economic Policy; Great Depression; Economic Recession and Distress; Economic Planning in the 30s’; Sumerbank and Etibank İzmir İktisat Kongresi – Milli İktisat – Büyük Buhran – Sanayi Planları Bent Hansen, “Postwar Recovery, ,” chapter in The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth – Egypt and Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1991, pp Bent Hansen, “The Etatist Experiment, ,” chapter in The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth – Egypt and Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1991, pp

7 Week VI The Second World War and the End of the Single-Party Era “National Chief” and the RPP; Turkish Neutrality; War Economy and Inflation; National Defence Law; the Capital Tax; the Lot of the Peasantry Milli Şef – Milli Korunma Kanunu – Varlık Vergisi – Toprak Mahsulleri Vergisi – Çiftçiyi Topraklandırma Kanunu Kemal Karpat, “The Social Classes and Wartime Developments,” chapter in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a Multi-Party System, by Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp: Kemal Karpat, “Modern Turkey,” chapter in The Cambridge History of Islam, volume I, edited by P.M. Hold, Ann K. S. Lambton & Bernard Lewis, Cambridge University Press, 1970, pp

8 Week VII The Coming of Political Democracy Demokrat Parti Bernard Lewis, “The Republic after Kemal,” chapter in The Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1968, pp Feroz Ahmad, “Towards Multi-Party Politics and Democracy, ,” in Turkey – The Quest for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld, 2003, pp

9 The World History The Long 19th Century 1789 – 1914 The Short 20th Century 1914 – 1991 Turkish 20th Century - from 1908 onwards The First Part (Seven Weeks) a) The Second Constitutional Era [ ] İkinci Meşrutiyet III – The Turkish Republic [Türkiye Cumhuriyeti] b) The Single-Party Era [ ] The Second Part (Seven Weeks) The Multi-Party Era [1946 -

10 Periodization of Turkish History Young Turk Era The Committee of Union and Progress The Long Great War Balkan Wars + World War I + National Struggle Republicans – Republican People’s Party The Democrat Party & 27 May 1960 The Second Constitutional Period The Third Constitutional Period

11 Intellectual Stages of Modernity in Turkey Secularism - Çağdaşlaşma, Batı[lı]laşma, Muasırlaşma, Asrîleşme, The Tanzimat Reformers [Reşit Paşa, Ali Paşa, Fuat Paşa] The Young Ottomans [Şinasi, Namık Kemal, Ali Suavi, Mithat Paşa] The Young Turks [Ahmet Rıza, Prens Sabahattin, Abdullah Cevdet] The Unionists – The CUP [Committee of Union and Progress] [Talat Paşa, Enver Paşa, Cemal Paşa, Ziya Gökalp] The Republicans [Kemalists] [Mustafa Kemal Paşa, İsmet İnönü, Celal Bayar]

12 Political Regimes in Turkey – Systems of Government I - Autocracy /Absolutist Monarchy – [Mutlakiyetçi Monarşi] Pre-Tanzimat Era – Tanzimat Era – Post Tanzimat Era II - Constitutional Monarchy [Meşruti (Anayasal) Monarşi] a) The First Constitutional Era [ ] b) The Second Constitutional Era [ ] İkinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi III – The Republican Regime [Türkiye Cumhuriyeti] a) The Single-Party Era [ ] The Autoritarian Modernity b) The Multi-Party Era [ ] The Political Democracy

13 Political Regimes in Turkey – Systems of Government The Dynastic Period – Devlet-i Al-i Osman – Ottomans Sultan – Supreme Authority I - Autocracy /Absolutist Monarchy – [Mutlakiyetçi Monarşi] a) The Classical Era [1299 – 1789] from Osman to Selim III Sögüt – Bursa – Edirne – İstanbul b) The Modern Era [ ] Selim III, Mahmut II, Abdülmecit, Abdülaziz, Abdülhamit II, Mehmet Reşat, Vahdettin

14 I ) The Classical Era – Social Strata The Palace entourage – Kapıkulu a) Seyfiye [Army], b) Kalemiye [Primitive Bureaucracy], c) İlmiye [Religious authorities] The Reaya – Peasantry (Subjects of the Sultan) The Guilds [Lonca] and Merchants Lack of middling strata (bourgeoisie) – Middle Class II ) The Modern Era The Nation-State Process The Making of Ottoman Middling Strata – Middle Class The Emergence of Nationalisms The liberterian Ideas – Public opinion – Civil society The Emergence of Ottoman Intelligentsia

15 II - Constitutional Monarchy [Meşruti (Anayasal) Monarşi] a) The First Constitutional Era [ ] Birinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi The First Constitution [Kanun-ı Esasi 1876] The First Parliament [Mebusan Meclisi – Ayan Meclisi ] b) The Second Constitutional Era [ ] İkinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi III – The Turkish Republic [Türkiye Cumhuriyeti] a) The Single-Party Era [ ] b) The Multi-Party Era [ ]

16 Emergence of Ottoman middling strata in the 19th century The New Bureaucracy (Weberian type) The Tanziman men The Tanzimat Edict [Tanzimat Fermanı] (1839) Rational, Professional Tanzimat Reforms The Centralization of the State A Modern State Apparatus – Ministries etc. A Modern Army New Financial and Economic Structure New Legislations – Codes borrowed from abroad New generations trained in Secular High Schools Civil Service Academy (Mülkiye Mektebi ) War Academy (Harbiye Mektebi) Medical College (Tıbbiye Mektebi)

17 The Young Turk Era in Turkish History The Young Turk movement Ottoman patriotism Who are the Young Turks ? An organized opposition of reformist Ottoman patriots Against absolutist regime of Abdulhamid II to reinstate constitution & parliament to propagate liberal and constitutional ideas European circle - Ottoman constitutionalists in exile Ahmed Rıza - Ottoman nationalist - Unionist Prens Sabahattin - liberal, minimal government, free enterprise Aptullah Cevdet - Westernist Congresses of Ottoman liberal and reformists in Paris – 1902 and 1907

18 Young Turk Era harbinger / forerunner of Republican Turkey Fortells the coming of a new regime / state Political changes The burgeoning of secular nation-state The rise of constitutionalism Basic rights – Citizens Socio-economic and cultural changes The new economic policy – Import Substitution – National Economy Secularization - Emancipation of women

19 The officers from the Third (Macedonian) and Second (Edirne) armies coming from the lower middle class increasing discontent - rising prices - payment of salaries was in arrears Signs of discontent Strikes + small-scale uprisings Macedonian problem Foreign control

20 The elections 1908 – Two-tier model [İki dereceli seçim] First electors – Second electors The CUP – the Committee of Union and Progress [İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti [Fırkası] Mehmed Cavid, Finance minister in June 1909 Mehmed Talat, Interior minister in August The Party of Ottoman Liberals – [Osmanlı Ahrar Fırkası] splinter group which broke away from CUP – February 1910 The Party of Freedom and Understanding November 1911 [Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası] The Ottoman Socialist Party [Osmanlı Sosyalist Fırkası]

21 The Counter-revolution - April 1909 [31 Mart Vak’ası] a) Demand for the Restoration of the Şeriat b) The Dismissal of the cabinet c) Seclusion of Muslim women – liberated by the new regime The Third Army and its Unionist supporters denounced the mutiny as unconstitutional Officers loyal to the constitution organized The Action Army [Hareket Ordusu] led by Mahmut Şevket Paşa set out from Salonica to restore order in Istanbul & punish the mutineers

22 Abdülhamit II toppled from power ratified by the fetva, a legal opinion, issued by the Şeyhulislam the accession to sultanate of Mehmet (V) Reşat (65) The liberal and conservative opponents of the CUP crushed Mahmut Şevket Paşa dominant force – virtual dictator of the new regime Unionists – his junior partners

23 Serious blows struck at the new regime Bulgaria declared its independence – October 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia Herzegovina Crete announced its decision to unite with Greece Uprisings – Albania, Yemen (İmam Yahya) The occupation of Tripolitania [Trablusgarp] by Italy The Balkan War [Balkan Harbi / Savaşı ] – Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Bulgaria - Ottoman Empire

24 The Treaty of London 1912 The Porte surrendered Edirne to Bulgaria along with all territory west of de Erez-Midya line The İstanbul Peace Agreement 1913 between O.E. And Bulgaria Eastern Thrace – including Edirne & Dimotoka – to O.E. Exchange of populatitions

25 The Babıali Coup [Babiali Baskını] Mahmut Şevket Paşa as Grand Vizier and War Minister Unionist – junior partners Mahmut Şevket Paşa assasinated CUP monopoly of power from 1913 onwards 1913 Constitutional amendments Took away power from the sultan - vested it in the legislature (parliament) and the cabinet

26 A program of political, social & economic reforms A) Military Reform - Reorganization of the army Older officer corps purged B) Administrative reform - Provincial administration - decentralization (adem-i merkeziyet) C) Abolition of the capitulations Unilateral Priviledges bestowed to foreigners The Great War - The First World War Harb-ı Umumî – Cihan Harbi – Birinci Dünya Savaşı

27 SECULARISM Secularization – Laiklik A) Judicial System B) Educational System C)Emancipation of Women

28 A) The Judicial Unification [Tevhid-i Adalet] i) Removal of the Şeyhülislam (highest religious authority) from the cabinet (1916) + his jurisdiction limited ii) Religious courts [Şer’i Mahkemeler] under the control of the Ministry of Justice iii) The Foundation of the Ministry of Religious Foundations [Evkaf Nezareti] B) The Educational Unification [Tevhid-i Tedrisat] i) Religious colleges (medrese)under the Ministry of Education [Maarif Nezareti] ii) The modernization of the Curricula of the higher medreses

29 C) Emancipation of Women Private sphere versus public sphere i) Law on inheritance, based on German code (1913) ii) Family law (the territory of the Şeriat) Decree for Family Law - [Hukuk-ı Aile Nizamnamesi] (1917) -Uniformity of all Ottoman subjects a) Right to take initiative for divorce b) Marriages before a magistrate c) Brides to be aged over 16

30 Position of women Ideology : The policy of the CUP (state feminism) + The effects of the World War – Lack of manpower compensated for by women hastened the entry of women into the labour market Women became visible Women took part in social life Women appeared in public

31 Women went to theatres and musical performances Meetings - Speeches in nationalist clubs Girls - the schooling system at different levels Primary education compulsory for girls (1913) Higher education - the teacher training colleges Courses at the University (1914) – [İnas Darülfünunu] World War I The Ottoman Society for the Employment of Women [Osmanlı Kadınları Çalıştırma Cemiyet] to recruit women for service in industry

32 The Making of Civil Society The Concept of Citizenry Law for the Associations [Cemiyetler Kanunu] 1909 Philanthropic – Communitarian - Labour - Women associations Nationalist organizations - Turkish Hearths [Türk Ocakları] 1911 Committee of National Defence [Milli Müdafaa Cemiyeti ] (1913) - created a strong “home front” - the Balkan War Participation in politics – Public Opinion Political game became less elitist It also became more brutal

33 The Age of Ideologies The Young Turk Era Laboratory for Turkish Republic 1913 – a turnaround in the ideological currents

34 Stages of Turkish Nationalism a) First stage – The proto stage Cultural (literary and linguistic) movement in the 19th century – up to 1908 Symbol: Namık Kemal b) Second stage – The Metamorphosis Economic and social movement Ziya Gökalp c) Third stage - The final stage Political movement Mustafa Kemal

35 Late comers – Italy – Germany - Turkey Similarity with German Stages after Ziya Gökalp a)First stage – The proto stage Cultural (literary and linguistic) movement up to the 1840s’ Symbol: Fiche b) Second stage – The Metamorphosis Economic and social movement up to 1870s’ List c) Third stage - The final stage Political movement – German Unity Bismarck from 1870s’

36 STATISM - DEVLETÇİLİK National Economy after Friedrich List (German economist – opponent of classical economics) State economics (Devlet iktisadiyatı) a neo-mercantilist policy a prototype of statism Insistence on “economic independence” support for indigenous (local) capital foreign capital = exploitation National credit institutions (milli banka) Support for national bourgeoisie (millî burjuvazi)

37 From economic liberalism to national economy– Milli İktisat) a) Free Trade imposed on Turkey by capitulations Classical liberal point of view Removal of traditional barriers - guilds New and modern legislation on transactions & ownership b) Institutions : Chambers of commerce (Ticaret Odaları) & associations

38 c) Labor Disputes Social unrest & strikes 1908 Labour legislation – Legislation on strikes Ban on trades-unions and strikes favoured entrepreneurs d) Agriculture a) Property rights of the landowners b) Modernization & investment in agriculture (irrigation projects + infrastructural works + credit facilities)

39 Modern Finances Modern Budget in 1909 prepared by Cavit Bey Minister of Finances Unified and general budget Increase in incomes inspection & collection of taxes Budget control through Parliament = Democracy

40 National Economic Policy Balkan Wars - a new era - to reliance upon internal strata Loss of Salonica (1912) shift of political center (CUP) to Istanbul The Rise of Nationalism Statist and Neo-mercantilist Era State Economics – Devlet İktisadiyatı radical steps – liberalism challenged

41 Economic liberalism = low customs duties jeopardized interests of the local producers Complaint of the Muslim merchants unequal competition by foreigners and non-Muslims due to capitulations Old style, well-organized trade corporations (petty producers) versus non-Muslim mercantile interests Muslim-Turkish artisans and merchants - backbone of the new nationalist ideology The Rise of “National Bourgeoisie”

42 Protectionalism = Import Substitution Economic nationalism neo-mercantilism or protectionism versus liberalism and free trade – comparative advantages Liberal [classical] economics of Adam Smith– not universal suits industrialized economy & imperialistic policies Free trade – beneficial policy for England not for Turkey Nation as an economic unity – (agriculture & industry & trade) A complete whole – Küll-i tam

43 Import Substitution – Home Product (Yerli Malı) 1909 Bursa Exposition – Bursa Sergisi Austro-Hungarian Boycott 1908 – Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina Muslim boycott of 1913 – National economic policy Muslims to purchase from their co-religious shopkeepers

44 The Spirit of Industrialization Decree for the Encouragement of Industry (1913) [Teşvik-i Sanayi Kanunu] Joint-stock companies, indigenous – national [milli] cooperatives & banking institutions The Industrial census Economic periodicals Sanayi Mecmuası – İktisadiyat Mecmuası TheNational Industrialists Society (Millî Fabrikacılar Cemiyeti)

45 War Economics – The Great War ( ) Financial & Economic Independence Capitulations abolished in Public Debts postponed New customs tariffs in 1916 specific and selective [protective] tariffs replacing ad-volarem [liberal] tariffs protective measures for the infant industries and local products

46 National market National economic policy – the motto of both CUP & RPP Social basis of National Liberation War (Milli Mücadele) Employment of Muslims in economic & financial sectors Imperative language - Turkish in business correspondence and official accounting

47 Allocation mechanism – Rationing (İaşe) Kara Kemal – architect of the “national economy program” – founder of the Special Trade Commission & “national” joint-stock companies – Milli Şirketler The Ministry of Rationing – İaşe Nezareti Creation of Muslim monopoly of trade - capital accumulation

48 Guilds encouraged to invest in national companies Reversal of official policy – CUP had abolished the guilds Created “trade associations” in their places Support for “national bourgeoisie” capital accumulation by small merchants of Muslim & provincial origins Price policy during WWI favoring Anatolian large farmers = Accumulation for Agrarian bourgeoisie

49 National Banking Institutions National Credit Bank - İtibar-ı Milli Bankası (1917) Substitute for the Ottoman Bank Merged with İş Bankası in 1927 Local banking institutions in Anatolia under the aegis of CUP local clubs & supported by the Finance Ministry Muslim provincial notables & moneyed men Support for CUP policies Support for National Struggle

50 FROM CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY TO REPUBLIC THE INTERREGNUM 1918 – 1923

51 The Mudros Armistice 31 October 1918 (Mondros Mütarekesi) The Congress of Erzurum 23 July 1919 The Congress of Sivas 4 September 1919 The Treaty of Sevres 10 August 1920 The National Pact (Misak-ı Milli) 20 January 1920 The Lausanne Peace Treaty 24 July 1923

52 The Mudros Armistice 31 October 1918 (Mondros Mütarekesi) 25 articles = amounted to Ottoman capitulation Military occupation of the straits Control of railway and telegraph lines Demobilization and disarmament except to keep law and order Surrender of Ottoman troops in Arab provinces The freeing of Entente POW German & Austrian military personnel (two months) to leave

53 Article 7: the most dangerous clause The right to occupy any place if... security... threatened Ottomans evacuated Musul - Occupation of Mosul Article 24 The right to intervene militarily in the “Armenian” provinces

54 The Congress of Erzurum 23 July 1919 Society for the Defence of Rights of Eastern Anatolia Şarki Anadolu Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti Representative Committee – Heyet-i Temsiliye Mustafa Kemal Paşa – its president *** The Congress of Sivas 4 September 1919 Society for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Thrace Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti

55 The Treaty of Sevres 10 August Severe terms imposed The O.E. Rump (remnant) state in northern Anatolia Thrace and İzmir to Greece Straits internationalized Independent Armenia created in eastern Anatolia - French mandates in Syria & Lebanon Palestine, Transjordan, & Iraq (Mosul) - British mandates South-western part of Anatolia to Italy [Kurdistan] – to receive autonomy – right to appeal for independence

56 Elections – Autumn 1919 for Istanbul parliament Unionists in control Salvation of the Fatherland Group ( Felâh-ı Vatan Cemiyeti ) *** The National Pact (Misak-i Milli) 20 January 1920 Official & fundamental statement of the resistance movement based on the resolutions in Erzurum and Sivas

57 The National Pact – Misak-ı Milli An indivisible whole: Territories inhabited by Ottoman Muslim majority Arab territories - plebiscite Kars, Ardahan and Batum – plebiscite Western Thrace - plebiscite Security of Istanbul and Marmara Sea Economic, financial and judicial independence No return to capitulations

58 Turning Point Greek Occupation of Izmir (May 1919) Protests - Mass demonstrations - The British occupation of Istanbul (16 March 1920) to put pressure on the nationalists Administration: Allied Commissions of Control and Organization Ottoman Parliament prorogued itself in protest (2 April 1920)

59 The last Ottoman The Peace Treaty of Lausanne Ankara’s proposal: İzmir Hosts - Britain, France, Italy and Greece Ankara & Istanbul invited to send delegations Grand vizier Ahmet Tevfik Paşa: suggested a joint delegation Furore in Ankara Abolition of the Sultanate ( 1 November 1922) Vahdeddin fled the country / to Malta (17 November 1922) His cousin - Abdülmecit Efendi - caliph, not a sultan

60 Turkish delegation led by İsmet İnönü loyal and dependable supporter Rauf Orbay, known as an Anglophile First Phase of the Conference - 20 November 1922 Instruction to İnönü: not to deviate from National Pact Discussions extremely difficult Diffirent perspectives of the two sides The Entente: victors of the Great War Adjustment of the terms of Sevres Turkey: victors in the National Struggle Sevres: Past history

61 Turkey not considered equal partners in the beginning Problems discussed: three headings: a) Territorial and military b) Economic and financial c) Position of foreigners and minorities [Exchange of population] February territorial problems solved (the border in Thrace, the future of the straits) Mosul question postponed Conference broke down

62 Second Phase - Reconvened - 23 April 1923 Greek and Turkish delegations solved their problems. Small border correction in Thrace in exchange for renouncing war reparations The Entente insisted on economic and judicial concessions in exchange for recognition of the abolition of capitulations Complete sovereignty of Turkish state Agreement reached on 17 July 1923 Treaty signed on 24 July 1923 Ratified on 21 August 1923

63 Turkey emerged as a sovereign state The Goals of National Pact basically attained Capitulations remained abolished No supervision over Turkish judicial system Foreigners subject to be tried before the Turkish courts Customs tariffs valid until 1929 Turkey to honour all existing foreign concessions until then The Straits zone internationalized under a commission & demilitarized / except for a garrison of up to men in Istanbul

64 No mention of Armenia or Kurdistan Minorities, Turkey bound itself to protect its citizens, regardless of creed, nationality or language All wartime reparation claims renounced Turkey accepted an amnesty: except 150 opponents of the Nationalists [Yüz Ellilikler]

65 British troops left Istanbul – 1 October years of continuous warfare Depopulated, impoverished & in ruins Demography Large-scale migration Anatolian population declined by % 30 % 10 migration & % 20 warfare mortality Anatolian Muslims Greeks and Armenians

66 Populism - Solidarism Philosophy = Solidarism Political Ideology = Populism

67 CUP ideological framework of both CUP & RPP prerequisites of nation state Populism - Halkçılık Solidarism - Tesanütçülük / Dayanışmacılık combination of German “national economy” & French “solidarism”

68 Social Philosophy of CUP - New Life (Yeni Hayat) Ziya Gökalp – disciple of Durkheim Solidarism - from Third French Republic division of labour versus class conflict Durkheim versus Marx National economy market economy with advanced division of labor & organic solidarity (functional interdependence) national coherence - unity rather than plurality

69 Corporatist version of Solidarity Ziya Gökalp Türkçülüğün Esasları – The Principles of Turkism 1923 Three Dicta / Saying 1. No Individual but Society (Fert yok, Cemiyet var) 2. No Classes but Professional Occupations (Sınıf yok, Esnaf var) 3. No Rights but Duties (Hak yok, Vazife var)

70 No Classes But Occupational Groups (Sınıf yok, Esnaf var) Rejection of class conflict no class tensions or economic egoism, Corporatism – Meslekçilik Guild economy – Guild socialism Occupational solidarity – Small Commodity Producers

71 Social Democratic version of Solidarity Economic Ideology– Tekin Alp – Social Democracy influenced by German “national economy” & “social economy” Inevitability of classes in a capitalist system Advance in civilization = capitalist development Nationalism to strengthen capitalism Economic development and industrialization under state supervision

72 Friedrich List – (German) National Economy mentor of Unionist economists (Tekin Alp) pioneer of protectionalism in Europe Principles for economic redress in Germany Emile Durkheim - (French) Division of labour mentor of Unionist sociologists (Ziya Gökalp) Mechanical solidarity - Organic solidarity Ferdinand Tönnies (German ) – Gökalp’s reconciliation Culture vesus civilization ( Hars - medeniyet)

73 Barrowed from Ferdinand Tönnies (German sociologist) Culture –( hars) = set of values and habits current within a community & Civilization – (medeniyet) = rational, international system of knowledge, science and technology

74 Social consequences of national economics / capitalism Speculation, blackmarket & disparities in income – New wealth created in the countryside Individual interests endangered public well being Social unity necessitated “sociology” – a panacea [remedy – cure] for Ottoman social disintegration – prescription: solidarism as u unifying principle

75 Populism - synonym of democracy to eradicate social Darwinism & install “social politics” State interfered on behalf of have-nots (poor people) Harp Zengini [War profiteer] – Harp Fakiri The New Path (Yeni İstikamet) & social revolution (içtimai inkılab) based upon populism (halkçılık) State acting as intermediary between public & private sectors

76 CURRENTS Competing ideologies -currents of thought – -– not mutually exclusive – Ottomanism (Ottoman nationalism / patriotism ) - Osmanlıcılık Islamism (Traditional & Modernist or Reformist) - İslamcılık Turkism -Turkish Nationalism - Türkçülük, Türk Milliyetçiliği

77 CURRENTS Competing ideologies Westernism - Muasırlaşmak, Avrupalılaşmak, Asrileşmek Modern vesion: Çağdaşlaşmak Solidarism – Tesanütçülük (Dayanışmacılık) Populism – Halkçılık (Sosyal Demokrasi) Corporatism – Meslekçilik (Korporatizm) Socialism – İştirakiyyun (Sosyalizm)

78 Ottomanism: Millet – Official ideology of the State until 1922 union of the different communities around the Ottoman throne 1908 Revolution – New Vocabulary - Emergence of citizen (Vatandaş) - Conception of people (Halk) - Invention of society (Cemiyet) - Eulogizing individual(Fert – Birey)

79 Constitutional Citizenship / Anayasal Vatandaşlık in 1876 Constitution A new constitutional state meşruti monarşi / anayasal monarşi Osmanlı Vatandaşı All subjects, irrespective of creed (religion) or language or race considered as loyal citizens with equal rights 1924 Constitution – Türk vatandaşı / yurttaşı

80 ISLAMISM Ümmet [Community] rather than Millet [Nation] A - Regeneration on the basis of Islamic practices [Asr-ı saadet] & B - Solidarity within the Islamic community (Ümmet) / Internationalism based on religion Modernist Islam versus Traditionalist Islam Political discourse = Panislamism – Political unity Pan-Islamic current - Heyday during Abdulhamit’s reign Only adoption of Western techniques keeping Islamic values/culture

81 CUP Islamism – Political expediency after Internal = Loyalty of the Arabs 2. External = Support of Muslim colonies Holy war (Cihad) declared in 1914 aiming at uniting the world Muslims behind the Ottoman State Islamic discourse during the National Liberation War Political expediency to unite the country against The invaders [non-Muslim]

82 Islamic modernists or reformists a) Şeriat - compatible with modernity (Namık Kemal) Mecelle as Civil Code b) Regeneration - Return to Islamic values Ümmet (Islamic community) could strengthen the Empire Sait Halim Paşa, Mehmet Akif (Ersoy) Several leaders of the National struggle = Progressive Republican Party – Terakkiperver Fırka wanted to keep the Khalifate

83 NATIONALISM Turkish Nationalism (a latecomer) : response to separatist nationalisms Last nationalism in the Ottoman Empire Against particularist goals of: Greek, Serbian, Bulgarians, Armenian, Arab & Albanian Nationalisms

84 THREE TYPES OF TURKISH NATIONALISM I - Expentionist Nationalism – Pan Turkism Ethnic Type II - Conservative Nationalism - Turkism Religious type III – Liberal Nationalism – Patriotism Cultural type

85 Variety of Turkish Nationalism - I Expentionist Nationalism First Type: up to 1918 Turkism / Pan-Turkism (Turkic / ethnic type) Central Asia Turan = (Originally) Cultural bind Ultra-nationalists = Political ideology Union of Turkic peoples under Ottoman flag

86 Variety of Turkish Nationalism - II Conservative Nationalism – Religiously motivated Second Type: Turkish nationalism (Religious type) – Anatolia & Islam To mobilize Anatolian people against invaders Turkic & Islamic cultures combined

87 Variety of Turkish Nationalism - III Liberal Nationalism – Patriotism [Yurtseverlik] Third Type: from 1924 Happy is he who calls himself a Turk Ne Mutlu Türküm Diyene rather than “Türk Olana” Opposed the idea of birth, blood, or ethnicity Turkish nationalism (Secular type) – Anatolia & secularity Cultural rather than Ethic or Racial Binding Anatolian civilizations & western values

88 Pan-Turkism Expansinist Nationalism The impact of the migrants Hüseyinzade Ali, Ahmet Ağaoğlu, Yusuf Akçura (Üç Tarz-ı Siyaset - Three Types of policy ) by Yusuf Akçura Relative merits of Islamist, Ottomanist and Turkist policies

89 Türk Ocağı (Turkish Hearth) Social and cultural clubs Lectures, discussions, theatrical and musical performances Türk Yurdu (Turkish Homeland) Republican years: influenced by fascist regimes in Europe Tended to adopt the docmatic, ethnic, and linguistic interpretation of nationalism

90 Turkish nationalism (Third type) – Moderate Nationalism Patriotism concentrates on Anatolia as the Turkish heartland intertwined with populism Halka Doğru (Towards the people) periodical (İstanbul – 1913) & organization (İzmir ) idealized the culture of the Turkish peasant population (halkiyyat - ethnography)

91 Ziya Gökalp Turkish nation had its own strong culture National pride to be reconciled with the adoption of European ways Islamic/Arabian + Byzantine medieval culture to be replaced with a modern European one while holding on to Turkish culture Criticism to men of Tanzimat: joining European civilization loss of touch with the culture of their own people

92 Populism - Halkçılık to create national solidarity to cure social tensions Peasantism - (Köycülük) Support for peasantary Statism Supremacy of society over the individual Prototype of Social Democracy

93 State versus Civil Society CUP officially supported Ottomanism The urgent question: How to bring about a synthesis of European elements with Ottoman values. Two Currents: Centralist – State / Society – Ziya Gökalp Decentralist – Individual – Prens Sabahattin

94 Unionist Young Turks – Revolutionary changes – Ziya Gökalp The Committee of Union and Progress İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti / Fırkası Emphasis on state A – Centralization B – National Economy and State Economics State is the logical and only means to achieve change

95 Liberal Young Turks – Evolutionary changes – Prens Sabahattin The Party of Freedom and Understanding Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası Emphasis on society / individual rather than state A- Decentralization B - Private Initiative and Liberal economics

96 WESTERNISM Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Cultural and civilizational change Adoption of European techniques & ideas & way of life Young Turk Proponent: Dr. Abdullah Cevdet İctihad (periodical) discarding traditional Ottoman civilization & adopting the European ways in totality

97 Turkey in 1923

98 Army recruitment – peasant population Fronts in four corners Caucasus, Gallipoli, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Galicia Eastern Anatolia: War theater 1915 Shortage of labor in agriculture / labor brigades

99 Suffering – retreating armies Armenian/ Orthodox Anatolian delocation / deportation Disruption of infrastructure / Railways, buildings etc. Famine / Infectious deseases Fatal Epidemic Deseases / Pestilence *** Independence War Retreating and fleeing Greek forces & advancing Turkish troops

100 High mortality rate due to Warfare Delocations / Deportations Atrocities Famine Epidemics Epidemics: Cholera & Typhoid In 12 provinces Widows among women exceeded % 30

101 Migration War with Russia (1878) 93 Harbi & Balkan War of Muslim refugees s. During and after Great War Armenians migrated to Soviet Union, France & USA s - Greeks from Western Anatolia

102 Treaty of Lausanne Remainder of the Rum Orthodox – Muslim from Greece – Net loss of population of Anatolia between From 17 to 12 million / productive human capital Ruralization Depopulation of cities % 25 to % 18

103 Ethnic Structure Anatolia % 80 Muslim in 1914 % 98 Muslim in 1924 Armenians Greeks

104 Economic structure Havoc (damage-destruction) wrought by wars Physical damages Railways & bridges Izmir devastated by fire *** Exodus of entrepreneurs and managers Stock of industrial and commercial know-how International trade 1/3 of pre-war level

105 Agriculture recuperated quickly GNP to reach 1914 – 1930s *** Ottoman Public Debts German War debts 170 million pounds written off Ottoman Debts consolidated Apportioned to the successor states or territories % 65 Turkey

106 End of Part 1


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