The Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turks cross into Europe in 1362. Battle of Kosovo, 1389. Conquered Constantinople in 1453. Besieged Vienna in 1683. – Vienna defended, – Ottomans took Hungary, Transylvania, Serbia.
War with Russia – Russia uses Ottoman decentralization to its advantage. Between 1774 and 1808 – Ottomans lost several major wars and much territory. – Russia took land in Caucasus – Napoleon invaded Egypt, Turkish control rescued by Britain. Decentralization led regional provinces to become autonomous. – Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703 – 1792), Sunni cleric, allied with Muhammad ibn Saud (? – 1765) in Arabia.
Tanzimat Reforms in 1839 – Rose Garden Edict, three basic principles. Guarantee of life, honor, and property regardless of religion. Replace tax farmers with more equitable tax system. Create military conscription system. Essentially a form of Enlightenment reform inspired by Americans and French.
Greek ethnic nationalists, helped by Russia, gain independence in 1832. More regions gain autonomy or are lost Algeria taken by France in 1830. Muhammad Ali of Egypt took Syria, moved on Istanbul itself. Empire survives 1830s due to British diplomacy to maintain balance of power.
Crimean War (1853 – 1856) Napoleon III claimed to be the protector of Christian holy spaces in Palestine. – Russia opposed claim – Ottoman’s had recognized the Tsars as protector in 1774. Britain, Ottomans, and France fight Russia in the Russia loses and forced to recognize sovereignty of Ottomans.
Crimean War followed by more Tanzimat reforms aimed at citizens’ rights and laws. – Fortunate Edict of 1856 specified rights of Education Employment justice. New law courts established to deal with commercial, maritime, criminal law, based on European models Muslim law codified, and family law remained followed religious lines (Muslim, Christian, or Jewish).
Military conscription extended to Christians and Jews as well as Muslims. Secular school system created, but underfunded and education remains with religious institutions. No money for tax collectors or land registry, and tax farmers continue to collect and pocket tax money.
Tanzimat Reforms opposed by “Young Ottomans” –... who wanted a constitution. “Ottoman Crisis” of 1873–1878 – Ottoman government defaulted on loans and had to increase taxes. Balkan nationalists protest, ethnonationalist uprisings occur. Russia supports Balkan nationalists, declares war on Ottomans. Palace coup by Young Ottomans puts Sultan Abdülhamit in charge, agrees to draw up a constitution. A constitution was adopted, but debates among new parliamentary delegates lead to sultan ruling by decree again.
Abdul Hamid II – creates autocratic rule with moderate Tanzimat advisors and limited funds. – foreign investment builds rail and telegraph lines postal service steamships. European influence promotes pan-Islamic fear of European aggression. Ottomans lost more land – England occupies Egypt – France occupies Tunisia. Emperor further nationalist uprisings in Macedonia and Armenia. Invaded Greece to prevent Crete from unifying with Greece.
Young Turk coup in 1908 – forces Abdul Hamid II to reinstate 1878 constitution. Young Turks – Educated young officers who created the Committee of Union and Progress. – Eventually deposed Abdul Hamid II in favor of his brother. – CUP dominated parliament, but unable to hold weak empire together. Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Bulgaria took Rumelia. Other regions broke away or were invaded by European powers. Russia promoted reforms in Macedonia, to drive Ottomans out of Europe. Eventually Ottomans lose all European territory except for part of Rumelia.