Presentation on theme: "World War I in the Middle East. Prelude: Constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire (and Iran) Some questions to consider : Were these constitutional movements."— Presentation transcript:
World War I in the Middle East
Prelude: Constitutionalism in the Ottoman Empire (and Iran) Some questions to consider : Were these constitutional movements revolutionary? If so, how so? How would one define revolution? What kinds of revolution are there? Why do seemingly progressive movements so often produce counter-revolutions or conservative backlashes? (often from the very groups on whose behalf they profess to work?)
More observations and questions Mass movements and mobilization Identity: nation, language, ethnicity. How did these factors play a role? Economics What role did nationalism play in the WWI period: before, during and immediately after?
Young Turks: Who were they and what did they want? Young Ottomans Army officers Secret societies Mustafa Kemal Committee of Union and Progress Triple Entente (1907): France, Britain, Russia Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk)
Course of Events Troop mutiny – Macedonia (1908) Third Army – restoration of constitution (1908) Counter-revolution Deposition of sultan Abdul Hamid CUP Regime, and
Some comments about Arab nationalism The “Arab awakening” (the nahdah) Literary clubs, missionaries Butrus al-Bustani ( ) Decentralization Party Arab Congress in Paris, 1913 Relationship to CUP George Antonius, author of The Arab Awakening
Some comments about Turkish Nationalism Ottomanism, pan- Islamism, pan-Turkism Gokalp: “We belong to the Turkish nation, the Muslim religion, and the European civilization.” Mustafa Kemal, Attaturk
World War I: its meaning Termination of 400-year rule of Ottoman Empire (OE) Transformation of OE Expectations of Arabs Lingering effects of imperialist decisions from the war
Ottoman Empire during the war Alliances (Central powers) Northeast frontier Straits Arab provinces and the Arab Revolt Gulf Area
The war Tactics Arab provinces Egypt Arab Revolt Iran Armistice of Mudros, Oct. 31, 1918 CUP flees Sharif Husayn of Mecca
San Remo: the Peace Settlement April 1920: Treaty of Sèvres (Aug): –Turkey formally partitioned: Straits international; south divided between France and Italy; Greece Thrace and Izmir; east Kurdish and Armenian –Mandates: Iraq and Palestine ►British –Syria/Lebanon ►French
The mandates and post-war map
Faysal and the (Brief) Kingdom of Syria March 1920 General Syrian Congress Proclamation of independent state San Remo and reaction July: French military attack and takeover Faysal exiled Faysal ibn Husayn, leader of the Arab Revolt,
The secret agreements Husayn-McMahon Issues: territory, independence of Arabs, British interests, British allies (the French) Different understandings of some of these
Sykes-Picot How does it contradict Husayn-McMahon agreement? Key issue of British- French relations French and British to establish “direct or indirect administration or control as they may desire…” areas “after agreement with Arab State
Balfour Declaration How does this document compare to the Sykes-Picot agreement made the year before? How is one to interpret the phrase “National Home”?
Questions about the legacy of World War I: Do you think international diplomacy and politics have changed since World War I? That is, do you think superpowers (as Britain and France were then) would behave in the same way today (regarding international agreements)? How have some of the World War I agreements continued to affect the region and the world today?