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World History: The Earth and its Peoples

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1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples
Chapter 10 Central and Eastern Asia, C.E.

2 Objectives Understand the role of Buddhism and its relationship to the Tang state and the reasons for and results of the backlash against Buddhism in the late Tang and Song periods. Be able to discuss the history and the significance of the relationships between China and its neighbors, including Central Asia, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Be able to carry out a simple comparative analysis of the different roles of Buddhism in China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan. Understand the nature and significance of technological innovation in the Song Empire.

3 Revisiting China disintegration of Han Dynasty in 220 C.E.
political fragmentation warfare and epidemics social dislocation advances in metallurgy, pharmacology, and mathematics reunification in 6th century spread of ideas trade, travel, education

4 Sui and Tang Empires, 581-907 Sui Empire - 581-618 Grand Canal
reuniting of China reestablishment of Confucianism Buddhism political influence Mahayana / Bodhisattvas encouraged leader to maintain harmonious society monasteries / prince alliances Grand Canal links Yellow and Yangtze Rivers communication and trade Mahayana / trade network overextension = Tang mix goods and culture of Asia cosmopolitan

5 Tang Empire Tang Empire- 618-907 warfare Li Shimin Chang’an
avoided overcentralization C:\Documents and Settings\tfredrickson\Desktop Chang’an 1 million population hub of communication tributary system supremacy tributes seafaring skills compass and large ocean ships spread of bubonic plague warfare Chinese weapons crossbow / armor Turkish horsemanship

6 Tang Integration Central Asian / Islamic Import Substitution porcelain
pants in lieu of robes; polo cotton replaces hemp grape wine, sugar, spices Import Substitution cotton, tea, sugar loss of silk monopoly porcelain world’s leading supplier Loss of Buddhist Influence blame for political upheavals tied to C. Asian barbarians exempt from taxes undermining of family

7 Fractured Power in Asia and China
Tang Failure dependence on local military and tax collections underfunding of army / rebellion political disintegration Central Asia Uigur and Tibet Tang Empire rivals Uigur N. Mongolia Turks in control of trade routes merchants and scribes linked Islamic lands to China Tibet linked China to India Buddhist commonality

8 Assessment 1. What role did Buddhism play in the early Sui
and Tang Empires? 2. Why did Buddhism fall out of favor in the late Tang Empire? 3. What was the relationship between Tang China and The Uigurs and Tibetans?

9 East Asian Emergence Replacement of Tang Dynasty
Liao - N. China (Beijing) Tangguts - W. China Song - C. China Liao AD pastoral tradition; horsemanship rulers as bodhisattvas legitimacy for rule military competitor to Song siege machines 1005 tribute truce Jin (Jurchen) destroyed Liao in 1125 drive Song south of Yellow

10 Song Empire Technology / Industry Military use of Tang technology
quasi-industrial revolution 1st to use fractions Crab Nebula (1054) small, seafaring compass mechanical celestial clock time, date, moon-star movements junks stern-mounted rudder Military high-quality steel weapons, bridges, armor gunpowder grapeshot cannons

11 Economy and Society Civil Outranks Military civil service movable type
neo-Confucianism moral and social responsibility reaction to Buddhism and Daoism Chan / Zen Buddhism salvation thru mental discipline (meditation) India / Tibet man is naturally good ideal human is the sage civil service recruited most talented men movable type techniques for land cultivation prevent disease (mosquitos) agricultural tool adaptation

12 Economy and Society Population Growth Credit Women over 100 million
waste, water, firefighting Credit “flying money” guarantee of exchange issuance of paper money inflation - taxes and sell-offs urban merchant fortunes Women cultural subordination anti-Buddhism, neo-Confucianism manage but not own property footbinding elite status symbol

13 Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Rice Farming (China) Confucian ideals hierarchy, obedience, discipline anti-Buddhism Compatibility Confucian / Buddhism no examination system hierarchy and harmony Chinese writing system farming / landowning elites no urban challengers Korea Koryo unification in 900s strong relations with Song movable type printing blocks

14 Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Central Japan Unification Korean warriors in 4th-5th cen. Chinese Influence Confucian legal code & govt interest in Buddhism architectural style Deviations no walled cities no Mandate of Heaven emperor (tenno) as figurehead ruling families (Fujiwara) Confucian learning over warrior local govt control to warrior aesthetic way of life new elite based on military values (samurai) Kamakura Shogunate Tale of the Heike

15 Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
rice-based like Southern China Champa rice Confucian / Buddhism influence tribute state of Song Women more power than China Trung sisters (Vietnam) resistance to Han invaders limited education The Tale of Genji (Japan) Murasaki Shikibu “general knowledge”

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