Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples"— Presentation transcript:
1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 10Central and Eastern Asia,C.E.
2 ObjectivesUnderstand the role of Buddhism and its relationship to the Tang state and the reasons for and results of the backlash against Buddhism in the late Tang and Song periods.Be able to discuss the history and the significance of the relationships between China and its neighbors, including Central Asia, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.Be able to carry out a simple comparative analysis of the different roles of Buddhism in China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan.Understand the nature and significance of technological innovation in the Song Empire.
3 Revisiting China disintegration of Han Dynasty in 220 C.E. political fragmentationwarfare and epidemicssocial dislocationadvances in metallurgy, pharmacology, and mathematicsreunification in 6th centuryspread of ideastrade, travel, education
4 Sui and Tang Empires, 581-907 Sui Empire - 581-618 Grand Canal reuniting of Chinareestablishment of ConfucianismBuddhism political influenceMahayana / Bodhisattvasencouraged leader to maintain harmonious societymonasteries / prince alliancesGrand Canallinks Yellow and Yangtze Riverscommunication and tradeMahayana / trade networkoverextension = Tangmix goods and culture of Asiacosmopolitan
5 Tang Empire Tang Empire- 618-907 warfare Li Shimin Chang’an avoided overcentralizationC:\Documents and Settings\tfredrickson\DesktopChang’an1 million populationhub of communicationtributary systemsupremacy tributesseafaring skillscompass and large ocean shipsspread of bubonic plaguewarfareChinese weaponscrossbow / armorTurkish horsemanship
6 Tang Integration Central Asian / Islamic Import Substitution porcelain pants in lieu of robes; polocotton replaces hempgrape wine, sugar, spicesImport Substitutioncotton, tea, sugarloss of silk monopolyporcelainworld’s leading supplierLoss of Buddhist Influenceblame for political upheavalstied to C. Asian barbariansexempt from taxesundermining of family
7 Fractured Power in Asia and China Tang Failuredependence on local military and tax collectionsunderfunding of army / rebellionpolitical disintegrationCentral AsiaUigur and TibetTang Empire rivalsUigurN. MongoliaTurks in control of trade routesmerchants and scribeslinked Islamic lands to ChinaTibetlinked China to IndiaBuddhist commonality
8 Assessment 1. What role did Buddhism play in the early Sui and Tang Empires?2. Why did Buddhism fall out of favor in the lateTang Empire?3. What was the relationship between TangChina and The Uigurs and Tibetans?
9 East Asian Emergence Replacement of Tang Dynasty Liao - N. China (Beijing)Tangguts - W. ChinaSong - C. ChinaLiao ADpastoral tradition; horsemanshiprulers as bodhisattvaslegitimacy for rulemilitary competitor to Songsiege machines1005 tribute truceJin (Jurchen)destroyed Liao in 1125drive Song south of Yellow
10 Song Empire Technology / Industry Military use of Tang technology quasi-industrial revolution1st to use fractionsCrab Nebula (1054)small, seafaring compassmechanical celestial clocktime, date, moon-star movementsjunksstern-mounted rudderMilitaryhigh-quality steelweapons, bridges, armorgunpowdergrapeshot cannons
11 Economy and Society Civil Outranks Military civil service movable type neo-Confucianismmoral and social responsibilityreaction to Buddhism and DaoismChan / Zen Buddhismsalvation thru mental discipline (meditation)India / Tibetman is naturally goodideal human is the sagecivil servicerecruited most talented menmovable typetechniques for land cultivationprevent disease (mosquitos)agricultural tool adaptation
12 Economy and Society Population Growth Credit Women over 100 million waste, water, firefightingCredit“flying money”guarantee of exchangeissuance of paper moneyinflation - taxes and sell-offsurban merchant fortunesWomencultural subordinationanti-Buddhism, neo-Confucianismmanage but not own propertyfootbindingelite status symbol
13 Korea, Japan, and Vietnam Rice Farming (China)Confucian idealshierarchy, obedience, disciplineanti-BuddhismCompatibilityConfucian / Buddhismno examination systemhierarchy and harmonyChinese writing systemfarming / landowning elitesno urban challengersKoreaKoryounification in 900sstrong relations with Songmovable type printing blocks
14 Korea, Japan, and Vietnam Central Japan UnificationKorean warriors in 4th-5th cen.Chinese InfluenceConfucian legal code & govtinterest in Buddhismarchitectural styleDeviationsno walled citiesno Mandate of Heavenemperor (tenno) as figureheadruling families (Fujiwara)Confucian learning over warriorlocal govt control to warrioraesthetic way of lifenew elite based on military values (samurai)Kamakura ShogunateTale of the Heike
15 Korea, Japan, and Vietnam rice-based like Southern ChinaChampa riceConfucian / Buddhism influencetribute state of SongWomenmore power than ChinaTrung sisters (Vietnam)resistance to Han invaderslimited educationThe Tale of Genji (Japan)Murasaki Shikibu“general knowledge”