Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 10 Central and Eastern Asia, 400 - 1200 C.E."— Presentation transcript:
World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 10 Central and Eastern Asia, C.E.
Objectives Understand the role of Buddhism and its relationship to the Tang state and the reasons for and results of the backlash against Buddhism in the late Tang and Song periods. Be able to discuss the history and the significance of the relationships between China and its neighbors, including Central Asia, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Be able to carry out a simple comparative analysis of the different roles of Buddhism in China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan. Understand the nature and significance of technological innovation in the Song Empire.
Revisiting China disintegration of Han Dynasty in 220 C.E. political fragmentation warfare and epidemics –social dislocation advances in metallurgy, pharmacology, and mathematics reunification in 6th century spread of ideas –trade, travel, education
Sui and Tang Empires, Sui Empire –reuniting of China –reestablishment of Confucianism –Buddhism political influence Mahayana / Bodhisattvas encouraged leader to maintain harmonious society monasteries / prince alliances Grand Canal –links Yellow and Yangtze Rivers –communication and trade Mahayana / trade network overextension = Tang –mix goods and culture of Asia –cosmopolitan
Tang Empire Tang Empire –Li Shimin avoided overcentralization C:\Documents and Settings\tfredrickson\DesktopC:\Documents and Settings\tfredrickson\Desktop –Chang’an 1 million population hub of communication tributary system –supremacy tributes –seafaring skills compass and large ocean ships spread of bubonic plague warfare –Chinese weapons crossbow / armor –Turkish horsemanship
Tang Integration Central Asian / Islamic –pants in lieu of robes; polo –cotton replaces hemp –grape wine, sugar, spices Import Substitution –cotton, tea, sugar –loss of silk monopoly porcelain –world’s leading supplier Loss of Buddhist Influence –blame for political upheavals –tied to C. Asian barbarians –exempt from taxes –undermining of family
Fractured Power in Asia and China Tang Failure –dependence on local military and tax collections –underfunding of army / rebellion political disintegration Central Asia –Uigur and Tibet Tang Empire rivals Uigur –N. Mongolia –Turks in control of trade routes merchants and scribes linked Islamic lands to China Tibet –linked China to India –Buddhist commonality
Assessment 1. What role did Buddhism play in the early Sui and Tang Empires? 2. Why did Buddhism fall out of favor in the late Tang Empire? 3. What was the relationship between Tang China and The Uigurs and Tibetans?
East Asian Emergence Replacement of Tang Dynasty Liao - N. China (Beijing) Tangguts - W. China Song - C. China Liao AD –pastoral tradition; horsemanship –rulers as bodhisattvas legitimacy for rule –military competitor to Song siege machines 1005 tribute truce –Jin (Jurchen) destroyed Liao in 1125 drive Song south of Yellow
Song Empire Technology / Industry –use of Tang technology quasi-industrial revolution –1st to use fractions –Crab Nebula (1054) –small, seafaring compass –mechanical celestial clock time, date, moon-star movements –junks stern-mounted rudder Military –high-quality steel weapons, bridges, armor –gunpowder grapeshot cannons
Economy and Society Civil Outranks Military –neo-Confucianism moral and social responsibility reaction to Buddhism and Daoism –Chan / Zen Buddhism »salvation thru mental discipline (meditation) »India / Tibet man is naturally good ideal human is the sage civil service –recruited most talented men movable type –techniques for land cultivation –prevent disease (mosquitos) –agricultural tool adaptation
Economy and Society Population Growth –over 100 million waste, water, firefighting Credit –“flying money” guarantee of exchange –issuance of paper money inflation - taxes and sell-offs –urban merchant fortunes Women –cultural subordination anti-Buddhism, neo-Confucianism manage but not own property footbinding –elite status symbol
Korea, Japan, and Vietnam Rice Farming (China) –Confucian ideals hierarchy, obedience, discipline anti-Buddhism Compatibility –Confucian / Buddhism no examination system hierarchy and harmony Chinese writing system –farming / landowning elites no urban challengers Korea –Koryo –unification in 900s strong relations with Song –movable type printing blocks
Korea, Japan, and Vietnam Central Japan Unification –Korean warriors in 4th-5th cen. –Chinese Influence Confucian legal code & govt interest in Buddhism architectural style –Deviations no walled cities no Mandate of Heaven emperor (tenno) as figurehead –ruling families (Fujiwara) Confucian learning over warrior local govt control to warrior –aesthetic way of life new elite based on military values (samurai) –Kamakura Shogunate Tale of the Heike
Korea, Japan, and Vietnam Vietnam –rice-based like Southern China Champa rice –Confucian / Buddhism influence tribute state of Song Women –more power than China –Trung sisters (Vietnam) resistance to Han invaders –limited education The Tale of Genji (Japan) –Murasaki Shikibu –“general knowledge”