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China in the Middle Ages Mr. Ermer World History Honors Miami Beach Senior High.

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Presentation on theme: "China in the Middle Ages Mr. Ermer World History Honors Miami Beach Senior High."— Presentation transcript:

1 China in the Middle Ages Mr. Ermer World History Honors Miami Beach Senior High

2 China: Rise of the Tang Dynasty After the Han collapse; China ruled by many warlords Sui Dynasty reunites China, rules for 34 years Tang Dynasty succeeds Sui as rulers of united China 618 CE: Emperor Li Shimin takes advantage of Sui disorder Expands Tang Empire into Inner Asia (Tang were ethnically Turkic) Defeated by Abbasid Arabs at Battle of Talas River, expansion ends Nobility exercises regional power, decentralized organizational structure Continued Han-style civil service exam for bureaucrats Respected Inner Asian cultures Confucian philosophy of state

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4 The Tang Empire After Han collapse, Buddhist state cults proliferate in Inner Asia and northern China Mahayana Buddhism and the role of kings—bodhisattvas Fostered language learning, invigorated travel/cultural exchange Tang princes enlist the help of monasteries Tax exemptions, land privileges, gifts for loyalty and support Tang emperors target monasteries as political threats Tang capital, Chang’an, is center of communication & trade Decentralized system allows for Tibetan and Uighur Grand Canal connects Chang’an to vast transit network Link between northern capital and southern port cities (Canton) Transportation crucial to sustaining the Tang tributary system Spread of information, goods, people, and disease (bubonic plague) Turkic style and culture influences Chinese (pants, polo, wine) Uighurs (Turkic Inner Asians) control area around Tarim River Tibetan Buddhist kingdom dominates Himalayas Tibetan kings follow Tang lead to diminish monastic power Monks overthrow king, royal authority passes to monasteries

5 Tang Repression & Collapse Buddhism attacked for weakening Confucian order Also for empowering women—Empress Wu Zhao Claims to be bodhisattva—favors Buddhism & Daoism Wu discredited by later Chinese officials and historians Buddhism seen as barbaric, weakened secular authority Defeat at Talas River weaken military loyalty, funding cut Rebellions weaken power of Tang emperors An Lushan’s rebellion ( ) strengthens regional governors Huang Chao’s rebellion ( ), violence against non-Chinese Destabilized Tang authority, ruled in name only afterward 907: Tang Dynasty terminated Three new states emerge: Liao: Northern, Mahayana Buddhist Khitan nomads related to the Mongols Tanggut: Buddhists related to Tibetans, modeled after the Tang Song Empire: Chinese/Confucian, expanded from Central Asia from 960

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11 Song China Song Chinese make many technological, scientific advancements, especially in astronomy Mechanical clock, chain driven machines, water wheels Adapt the magnetic compass for seafaring (fixed needle, glass case) The Chinese junk ship promotes maritime trade/exploration Song Chinese discover gunpowder Neo-Confucianism Sage: one who preserves mental stability/peace, while solving probs. Zen Buddhism rises as counter to Neo-Confucianism Women subordinated by Confucian men, minimally educated Foot-binding becomes status symbol Adoption of moveable type printing from Korea Growing population prompts new to deal with crowded cities Issuance of paper money

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13 Chinese Foot binding (Ouch!)

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16 Emergence of East Asia The Liao Empire ( ) Pastoralism provided military & economic base Culturally heterogeneous, diversity allowed Allied with the Song, received tributes of money & silk from Song emperors Kings legitimized as Buddhist bodhisattvas Overthrown by the Jurchens in 1125—Jin Empire established Jin Empire attacks Song China, conquer Jin lands north of Yellow River Vietnam Annam adopts Chinese values in Tang era, assumes name Dai Viet after Tang Rival state of Champa in south nurtures fast-maturing Champa rice Champa rice highly prized in China

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19 Vietnam

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21 Japan & Korea Korea Only southern 20% suitable for agriculture Silla kingdom dominates with Tang support, collapses with Tang Koryo kingdom rises, allies with Song China—Buddhist Pioneers printing technology—woodblock printing Japan Collection of islands with limited farmland, mountains Adopt Chinese building style, Mahayana Buddhism No Mandate of Heaven, imperial dynasty never changes, tenno has little power, rather the prime minister and Shinto religious leaders exercise real power Fujiwara family protects tenno emperors with Confucian dicipline Warriors left to rule towns, civil war erupts between warrior clans Warfare brings decentralized Kamakura Shogunate Fujiwara nobleman lose power to new warrior elite

22 Japanese Class System The Emperor The Shogun The Daimyo The Ronin The Samurai Farmers Artisans Merchants Eta

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