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Inner & East Asia: Sui, Tang, Song 600-1200 CE.

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Presentation on theme: "Inner & East Asia: Sui, Tang, Song 600-1200 CE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inner & East Asia: Sui, Tang, Song 600-1200 CE


3 Sui Dynasty: Reunification & Military Expansion Government based on Confucianism-heavily influenced by Buddhism Resources spent on infrastructure, military Capital at Chang’an Grand canal-military, communication & trade Irrigation systems Improved Great Wall Militarily ambitious

4 Tang Empire, 618 -755 Territorial expansion Avoided over-centralization Combined Turkic influence w/ Chinese Confucian traditions Influx of cosmopolitan culture,

5 Tang Military

6 Buddhism & Tang Empire Emperors used Buddhism to legitimized power kings promoted themselves as spiritual agents-provided access to Buddhist realm Monasteries allied w/ Emperors Received tax exemptions, land gifts

7 Mahayana Buddhism Followed trade routes to Chang’an –Cosmopolitan city Flexible –adaptable –Buddhist texts translated into local languages

8 Chang’an Ambassadors-tributary system Over a million residents Foreigners lived in special compounds walled gated quarters Roads/canals (Grand Canal) Islamic & Jewish merchants Large commercial ships Bubonic plague arrived Combined Central Asian influences (Turkic) & Chinese culture Roads, rivers, & canals facilitated trade Exports exceeded imports Foreign trade caravan

9 Power Rivals: Uighur & Tibetan Empires

10 Power Rivals: Uighur Mid-eighth century Turkic group Empire in Central Asia Merchants & scribes Strong ties to Islam & China Own script Lasted 50 years


12 Power Rivals: Tibet Large empire with access to SE Asia, China, & South & Central Asia Open to Indian, Chinese, Islamic, & even (via Iran) Greek culture In early Tang, relations were friendly –Tibetan king received a Chinese princess Mahayana Buddhism brought to Tibet-combined w local religion By late 600’s military rivalry began –Tibet allied w/ Tang rival 9th century, Tibetan king failed to eliminate Buddhism Tibet entered long period of monastic rule & isolation

13 Tang: Upheavals & Repression, 750–879 Conflict w/ Tibetans & Turkic Uighurs-backlash against “foreigners” Confucian ideology reasserted Buddhism undermined family values- many became monks & nuns-deprived families of marriage alliances & descendants Buddhism eroded tax base & legitimized women’s participation in politics Wu Zhao-seized control w/Buddhist support Claimed to be bodhisattva Favored Buddhists & Daoists Confucian elites characterized unorthodox rulers & powerful women as “evil” Buddhism associated w/ barbarians & social ills

14 End of Tang 879-907 Territory expanded-many internal rebellions 907- Tang state collapsed Regional military governors established own kingdoms None able to integrate territory on same scale East Asia cut off from communication w/ Islamic world & Europe

15 New States Emerge in East Asia, to 1200: Liao, Jin, & Chinese Song Song cut off from Central Asia so it turned to sea –strengthened contacts with Korea, Japan and SE Asia

16 Southern Song: 1127-1279


18 Song Innovation Technological innovations based on info brought from West Asia during Tang era –Mathematics –Astronomy –calendar making –Mechanical clock –Improved compass –Sternpost rudder, watertight bulkheads

19 Song Industries Standing army –professionally trained –regularly paid Iron and coal –high–grade iron and steel weapons, armor, defensive works Gunpowder weapons

20 Song Economy & Society Confucian-elite officials dominated Neo-Confucian philosophy developed Chan (Zen) Buddhism became popular Civil Service Exam matured Hereditary system broke down Meritocracy improved government efficiency & reliability

21 Song Economy & Society Moveable type = mass- produced government authorized exam prep materials New agricultural technology = increased agricultural productivity = increased population in South China

22 Song Economy and Society China’s population grew to 100 million Large crowed, well-managed cities like Hangzhou “Flying money”-interregional credit system Government issued paper money Caused inflation and later withdrawn Difficulty controlling market economy Tax collection was privatized Burgeoning new merchant elite

23 Song Economy & Society Women’s status declined Totally subordinated to men Lost rights to own and manage property Remarriage forbidden Bound feet became mandatory status symbol for elite women Working-class women, and non-Han more independent

24 New Kingdoms in South Asia: Korea, Japan, Vietnam all rice economies labor needs fit well w/ Confucian concepts of hierarchy, obedience, & discipline all adopted aspects of Chinese culture but political ideologies remained different

25 New Kingdoms in South Asia: Korea Cultural bridge Hereditary elite absorbed Confucianism & Buddhism from China-passed to Japan Kingdoms first united by Silla in 668 then Koryo early 900’s Used woodblock printing as early as 700’s later invented moveable type- passed on to Song

26 New Kingdoms in South Asia: Japan Mountainous terrain created hundreds of small states - unified in about 4 th -5th century Government established at Yamato on Honshu Island Mid-7th century political reforms established centralized government legal code, national histories, architecture, city planning based on Tang cities Modeled on China but adapted to their own needs Maintained emperorship Shinto survived alongside Buddhism

27 New Kingdoms in South Asia: Japan Women enjoyed a relatively strong position Aristocratic women became royal consorts- linked court w/ own kinsmen Siuko, became empress when her husband died in 592 Prince Shotuku, her nephew & regent, developed Constitution based on Confucian & Buddhist approaches to statecraft

28 New Kingdoms in South Asia: Japan Heian Period – 794-1185 Fujiwara dominated Japanese government Aesthetic refinement of aristocracy Elevated civil officials above warriors By late 1000’s, some warrior clans became wealthy & powerful Kamakura Shoganate took control Established capital at Kamakura in eastern Honshu

29 New Kingdoms in South Asia: Vietnam Geographical proximity & similar wet-rice agriculture made it suitable for integration w/ south China Economic & cultural assimilation took place during Tang & Song periods Northern Vietnam elite (Annam) modeled their culture on Chinese When Tang fell, Annam established itself as an independent state under the name Dai Viet

30 New Kingdoms in South Asia: Vietnam Southern Vietnam, kingdom of Champa influenced by Malay and Indian as well as by China During Song, Champa cultivated and exported fast-maturing Champa rice to China Strong common Confucian interest in hierarchy Status of women varied Foot-binding not common outside China Before Confucianism, women had higher status in Annam than Chinese women Education of women was not valued or desirable anywhere

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