2 I. The Tang Empires, 618-755 A. Tang Origins 1. The Tang Empire was established in 618.2. Carried out a program of territorial expansion, avoided over centralization, and combined Turkic influence with Chinese Confucian traditions.
5 B. Buddhism and the Tang Empire 1. Emperors used Buddhist Idea that kings are spiritual agents who bring their subjects into a Buddhist realm.2. Buddhist monasteries received tax exemptions, land, and gifts.3. Mahayna Buddhism and its flexible beliefs encouraged the adaptation of local deities into the pantheon.4. Buddhism spread following trade routes that converged on Tang capital Chang’an, making it a cosmopolitan city.
9 C. Chang’an by Land and Sea 1. Had a half a million residents.2. Foreigners lived in speical compounds; urban residents lived in walled, gated residential quarters.3. Grand Canal brought people and goods into the city.4. Islamic and Jewish merchants from Western Asia came to China via the Indian Ocean Trade Routes.5. Ships brought goods and the Bubonic plague.
12 D. Trade and Cultural Exchange 1. Tang China combined Turkic and Chinese culture and brought polo, grape wine, tea, and spices.2. Lost monopoly on silk, but began to produce its own cotton, tea, and sugar.3. Exported far more than imported with high quality silks and porcelain being among its most desired products.
16 II. Rivals for Power in Inner Asia and China 600-907 A. The Uighur and Tibetan Empires1. Uighur Empire was in Central Asia.2. Combined Islam and China and developed own script and lasted for 50 years.3. Tibet was a large empire with access to all parts of Asia and was open to Indian, Chinese, Islamic, and even Greek Culture.4. Early relations between Tibet and Tang was good, but went bad when Tibet allied themselves with the southwestern kingdom of Nanchao against the Tang.5. In the 9th century, a Tibetan king attempted to eliminate Buddhism but failed.
21 B. Upheavals and Repression, 750-879 1. In the late 9th century Tang broke the power of the Buddhist monasteries and Confucian ideology was reasserted.2. This happened because Buddhism was seen as undermining the family system and eroding the tax base by accumulating tax-free land and attracting hundreds of thousands of people to become monks and nuns.3. Buddhism had supported Wu Zhao, a women to become empress.4. Confucian scholars concocted accounts that painted highly critical portraits of Wu Zhao and other influential women in Chinese history.
24 C. The End of the Tang Empire 1. Tang collapsed because it relied too much on provincial governors and they established their own kingdoms.2. None of these smaller kingdoms were able to integrate territory on the scale of the Tang and communication with the Islamic world and Europe was cut off.
25 III. Emergence of East Asia, to 1200 A. The Liao and Jin Challenge1. The Liao, Jin, and Chinese Song grew out of the Tang Empire.2. Liao were nomads and settled agriculturalists and were of the Kitan ethnic group.3. Liao Empire lasted from and forced the Song to give them annual payments of cash and silk in return for peace.4. The Song helped the Jurchens of northeast Asia to defeat the Liao and the Jurchens established the Jin Empire and drove the Song out of north and central China.5. Song continued to reign in south China as the Southern Song Empire ( ).
29 B. Song Industries1. Song made a number of technological innovations in the areas of mathematics, astronomy, and calendar making.2. In 1088 the engineer Su Song constructed a huge chain driven clock that told the time and the day of the month and indicated the movements of the moon and certain stars and planets.3. Made the compass suitable for seafaring.4. Introduced the sternpost rudder and watertight bulkheads.5. Introduced a standing, professionally trained, regularly paid military and used iron and steel and gunpowder in their wars.
33 C. Economy and Society in Song China 1. Civilian officials dominated society and put a higher value on aesthetic pursuits including a Neo-Confucian philosophy and Zen Buddhism continued to be popular.2. Civil Service examination system was introduced and allowed men to be chosen by merit.3. With the invention of movable type the Song were able to mass-produce authorized preparation texts and contributed to dissemination of new agricultural technology which spurred population growth.4. Population rose to 100 million.5. An interregional credit system called flying money and the introduction of government-issued paper money, but it caused inflation and was later withdrawn.6. Not able to control the market economy and a new merchant elite thrived in the cities and their wealth derived from trade, not land.7. Women status declined, lost rights to own property, remarriage was forbidden, foot binding became a mark of the elite and mandatory.
39 IV. New Kingdoms in East Asia A. Korea1. Korean hereditary elite absorbed Confucianism and Buddhism from China and passed them along to Japan.2. The several small Korean kingdoms were untied first by Silla in 668 and then by Koryo in the early 900s. Korea used woodblock printing as early as the 700s and later invented moveable type.
41 B. Japan1. Home to hundreds of small states that were unified perhaps by horse-riding warriors from Korea in the 4th or 5th century.2. In the mid 7th century, implemented a series of political reforms to establish a centralized government, legal code, national histories, architecture, and city planning based on the model of Tang China.3. However, they adapted it to the needs of Japan and maintained their own concept of emperorship and the native religion of Shinto survived.4. Women became royal consorts and Suiko reigned as empress taking over from her husband’s death in 592.5. During the Heian period ( ) the Fujiwara clan dominated the Japanese government and civil officials were placed above warriors.6. However, by 1000 some warrior clans had become wealthy and powerful and one clan established the Kamakura Shogunate, with its capital at Kamakura in eastern Honshu.
45 C. Vietnam1. Geographical proximity and a similar, irrigated wet-rice agriculture made Vietnam suitable for integration with southern China.2. The elite of Annam modeled their high culture after the Chinese.3. The kingdom of Champa exported the fast-maturing Champa rice to China.4. Status of women was higher than in China.