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Inner and East Asia, 600 – 1200. I. The Early Tang Empire, 618 - 715 A. Tang Origins Sui Dynasty (581 – 618) Sui Dynasty (581 – 618) Emperor Li Shimin.

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Presentation on theme: "Inner and East Asia, 600 – 1200. I. The Early Tang Empire, 618 - 715 A. Tang Origins Sui Dynasty (581 – 618) Sui Dynasty (581 – 618) Emperor Li Shimin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inner and East Asia, 600 – 1200

2 I. The Early Tang Empire, A. Tang Origins Sui Dynasty (581 – 618) Sui Dynasty (581 – 618) Emperor Li Shimin Emperor Li Shimin Extension of autonomy, Confucian examinations Extension of autonomy, Confucian examinations Turkic culture/military Turkic culture/military B. Buddhism and the Tang Empire Presence of Buddhism, responsibility of king Presence of Buddhism, responsibility of king Mahayana Buddhism dominant – facilitated cultural exchange Mahayana Buddhism dominant – facilitated cultural exchange Early Tang dependence on Buddhist monasteries Early Tang dependence on Buddhist monasteries Capital at Changan Capital at Changan Cosmopolitan - diversity, contacts with Inner Asia Cosmopolitan - diversity, contacts with Inner Asia

3 C. To Changan by Land and Sea Roads, Grand Canal Roads, Grand Canal Tributary system Tributary system Layout of Changan Layout of Changan Compass design, ocean vessels Compass design, ocean vessels Plague of Justinian Plague of Justinian D. Trade and Cultural Exchange Cultural impact from Inner Asia/Islam Cultural impact from Inner Asia/Islam Clothing Clothing Stringed instruments, food and wine Stringed instruments, food and wine 1000 CE exports exceeded imports – balance of trade 1000 CE exports exceeded imports – balance of trade Silks, porcelain Silks, porcelain Increased trade along Silk Road/Indian Ocean – traders use credit/finance networks Increased trade along Silk Road/Indian Ocean – traders use credit/finance networks

4 II. Rivals for Power in Inner Asia and China, 600 – 907 A. The Uighur and Tibetan Empire Turks migrated from Mongolia westward Turks migrated from Mongolia westward 8 th century – Uighurs controlled Tarim Basin/Inner Asia 8 th century – Uighurs controlled Tarim Basin/Inner Asia Cosmopolitan – merchants, scribes, art, religion Cosmopolitan – merchants, scribes, art, religion Fell quickly Fell quickly Chinese pilgrims traveled through Tibet Chinese pilgrims traveled through Tibet Alphabet, art/architecture, medicine, math, farming Alphabet, art/architecture, medicine, math, farming 643 – Tang princess Kongjo married Tibetan king – brought Mahayana Buddhism, increased contact between Tibet and Tang 643 – Tang princess Kongjo married Tibetan king – brought Mahayana Buddhism, increased contact between Tibet and Tang Tibetan military strengths Tibetan military strengths Late 600s – Tang and Tibet competing from control over Inner Asia Late 600s – Tang and Tibet competing from control over Inner Asia Tibet reached into Chinese provinces Tibet reached into Chinese provinces 800 – Tibetan king wanted to do away with monasteries but assassinated by monks – further isolation 800 – Tibetan king wanted to do away with monasteries but assassinated by monks – further isolation

5 B. Upheavals and Repression, 750 – 879 New fears of Buddhism undermining Confucianism, Han Yu New fears of Buddhism undermining Confucianism, Han Yu Emperor Wu Zhao – favored Buddhism/Daoism, reviled by Confucian writers Emperor Wu Zhao – favored Buddhism/Daoism, reviled by Confucian writers Buddhists severed ties to this world Buddhists severed ties to this world Edict of 845 – Tang destroyed thousands of temples, government gained new sources of revenue Edict of 845 – Tang destroyed thousands of temples, government gained new sources of revenue Fall of Buddhism in Tang China Fall of Buddhism in Tang China C. The End of the Tang Empire, 879 – 907 Empire dependent on local military rulers/complex tax system Empire dependent on local military rulers/complex tax system 755 – Rebellion led by General An Lushan, rise of military governors 755 – Rebellion led by General An Lushan, rise of military governors Prosperity but political disintegration and cultural decay Prosperity but political disintegration and cultural decay 879 – 881 – Huang Chao (gentry) led greatest uprising Hatred of foreigners 879 – 881 – Huang Chao (gentry) led greatest uprising Hatred of foreigners Warlords – mass migrations to the south Warlords – mass migrations to the south

6 III. The Emergence of East Asia to 1200 Three new states: origins, beliefs A. The Liao and Jin Challenge Liao Empire of Khitan (916 – 1121) – Siberia to Central Asia Liao Empire of Khitan (916 – 1121) – Siberia to Central Asia Pastoral traditions, importance of Buddhism to emperor Pastoral traditions, importance of Buddhism to emperor Siege machines, horsemen Siege machines, horsemen 1005 – Song tribute to the Liao 1005 – Song tribute to the Liao Alliance with Jurchens of northeast Asia Alliance with Jurchens of northeast Asia Destruction of Liao capital in 1115 Destruction of Liao capital in 1115 Southern Song (1127 – 1279) – Song make payments to Jin to avoid warfare Southern Song (1127 – 1279) – Song make payments to Jin to avoid warfare B. Song Industries INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION??? INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION??? Indian/West Asian mathematicians/astronomers – fractions/calendars Indian/West Asian mathematicians/astronomers – fractions/calendars 1088 – Su Song and giant celestial clock 1088 – Su Song and giant celestial clock Advances in magnetic compass Advances in magnetic compass Junk ships – rudder, watertight bulkheads…copied in Persian Gulf Junk ships – rudder, watertight bulkheads…copied in Persian Gulf HUGE ARMY (1.25 million men) – half the territory of the Tang HUGE ARMY (1.25 million men) – half the territory of the Tang Use of steel/iron – sources in the north Use of steel/iron – sources in the north Government monopoly by 11 th c. – producing as much cast iron as 18 th c. Great Britain Government monopoly by 11 th c. – producing as much cast iron as 18 th c. Great Britain Mass production Mass production 1100s - Gunpowder - impact 1100s - Gunpowder - impact

7 C. Economy and Society in Song China Neo – Confucianism, Zhu Xi, ideal human – the sage Neo – Confucianism, Zhu Xi, ideal human – the sage Chan Buddhism (Zen in Japan) – mental discipline Chan Buddhism (Zen in Japan) – mental discipline Rigorous examinations for bureaucratic offices Rigorous examinations for bureaucratic offices Social implications of scoring well/poorly on exams Social implications of scoring well/poorly on exams Printing – woodblock to moveable type Printing – woodblock to moveable type Mass printing of books, exam materials, instructions on cultivation Mass printing of books, exam materials, instructions on cultivation Agriculture south of the Yangzi River, plow/rakes, control of malaria Agriculture south of the Yangzi River, plow/rakes, control of malaria Migration to the south, displacement of native people Migration to the south, displacement of native people 1100 – population in Chinese territories over 100 million 1100 – population in Chinese territories over 100 million Large cities Large cities Problems in cities – waste management, water supply, etc. Problems in cities – waste management, water supply, etc. City of Hangzhou City of Hangzhou Credit – flying money Credit – flying money Government issued paper money - inflation Government issued paper money - inflation Cost of military expenditures Cost of military expenditures Sold rights to collect taxes Sold rights to collect taxes New social hierarchy based on new sources of wealth – MODERN – growth of middle class and private capitalism seen in 18 th c. Europe New social hierarchy based on new sources of wealth – MODERN – growth of middle class and private capitalism seen in 18 th c. Europe Womens rights/education Womens rights/education Development of footbinding – status symbol Development of footbinding – status symbol

8 IV. New Kingdoms in East Asia Expanding Confucian world view targeted the south Expanding Confucian world view targeted the south Cultivation of rice needed structured society Cultivation of rice needed structured society Korea, Japan and Vietnam all centralized power during the Tang period – saw Buddhism and Confucianism as compatible Korea, Japan and Vietnam all centralized power during the Tang period – saw Buddhism and Confucianism as compatible A. Korea Mountains, little agricultural land Mountains, little agricultural land Early 500s - kingdom of Silla (south); power of landowners, Koguryo kingdom in north, after 688 Silla ruled but needed support of Tang Early 500s - kingdom of Silla (south); power of landowners, Koguryo kingdom in north, after 688 Silla ruled but needed support of Tang After early 900s (fall of Tang) house of Koryo united peninsula – alliance with the Song After early 900s (fall of Tang) house of Koryo united peninsula – alliance with the Song Koryo kings supported Buddhism – woodblock printing from 700s Koryo kings supported Buddhism – woodblock printing from 700s Process of woodblock printing, advances… Process of woodblock printing, advances…

9 B. Japan Geography Geography Mid 600s Yamato followed Tang government Mid 600s Yamato followed Tang government Architecture, Buddhism Architecture, Buddhism No walls, Mandate of Heaven No walls, Mandate of Heaven Unchanging Tenno dynasty, role of prime minister and Shinto Unchanging Tenno dynasty, role of prime minister and Shinto Kyoto Kyoto Fujiwara family – cultural development, Confucianism Fujiwara family – cultural development, Confucianism Power of warriors, civil war Power of warriors, civil war Education of women – The Tale of Genji Education of women – The Tale of Genji Kamakura Shogunate – Buddhism, rise of samurai Kamakura Shogunate – Buddhism, rise of samurai C. Vietnam Red River and Mekong, irrigation systems Red River and Mekong, irrigation systems Annam – Confucian bureaucratic training, Mahayana Buddhism Annam – Confucian bureaucratic training, Mahayana Buddhism 936 – Dai Viet – good relations with Song 936 – Dai Viet – good relations with Song Rivalry wit Champa (south) – foreign influences Rivalry wit Champa (south) – foreign influences Champa and voluntary tribute – Champa rice Champa and voluntary tribute – Champa rice Confucian hierarchy – differences in treatment of women Confucian hierarchy – differences in treatment of women


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