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Inner and East Asia, 600 – 1200.

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Presentation on theme: "Inner and East Asia, 600 – 1200."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inner and East Asia, 600 – 1200

2 I. The Early Tang Empire, 618 - 715
A. Tang Origins Sui Dynasty (581 – 618) Emperor Li Shimin Extension of autonomy, Confucian examinations Turkic culture/military B. Buddhism and the Tang Empire Presence of Buddhism, responsibility of king Mahayana Buddhism dominant – facilitated cultural exchange Early Tang dependence on Buddhist monasteries Capital at Chang’an Cosmopolitan - diversity, contacts with Inner Asia

3 C. To Chang’an by Land and Sea
Roads, Grand Canal Tributary system Layout of Chang’an Compass design, ocean vessels Plague of Justinian D. Trade and Cultural Exchange Cultural impact from Inner Asia/Islam Clothing Stringed instruments, food and wine 1000 CE exports exceeded imports – balance of trade Silks, porcelain Increased trade along Silk Road/Indian Ocean – traders use credit/finance networks

4 II. Rivals for Power in Inner Asia and China, 600 – 907
The Uighur and Tibetan Empire Turks migrated from Mongolia westward 8th century – Uighurs controlled Tarim Basin/Inner Asia Cosmopolitan – merchants, scribes, art, religion Fell quickly Chinese pilgrims traveled through Tibet Alphabet, art/architecture, medicine, math, farming 643 – Tang princess Kongjo married Tibetan king – brought Mahayana Buddhism, increased contact between Tibet and Tang Tibetan military strengths Late 600s – Tang and Tibet competing from control over Inner Asia Tibet reached into Chinese provinces 800 – Tibetan king wanted to do away with monasteries but assassinated by monks – further isolation

5 B. Upheavals and Repression, 750 – 879
New fears of Buddhism undermining Confucianism, Han Yu Emperor Wu Zhao – favored Buddhism/Daoism, reviled by Confucian writers Buddhists severed ties to this world Edict of 845 – Tang destroyed thousands of temples, government gained new sources of revenue Fall of Buddhism in Tang China C. The End of the Tang Empire, 879 – 907 Empire dependent on local military rulers/complex tax system 755 – Rebellion led by General An Lushan, rise of military governors Prosperity but political disintegration and cultural decay 879 – 881 – Huang Chao (gentry) led greatest uprising Hatred of foreigners Warlords – mass migrations to the south

6 III. The Emergence of East Asia to 1200
Three new states: origins, beliefs The Liao and Jin Challenge Liao Empire of Khitan (916 – 1121) – Siberia to Central Asia Pastoral traditions, importance of Buddhism to emperor Siege machines, horsemen 1005 – Song tribute to the Liao Alliance with Jurchens of northeast Asia Destruction of Liao capital in 1115 “Southern Song” (1127 – 1279) – Song make payments to Jin to avoid warfare B. Song Industries INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION??? Indian/West Asian mathematicians/astronomers – fractions/calendars 1088 – Su Song and giant celestial clock Advances in magnetic compass Junk ships – rudder, watertight bulkheads…copied in Persian Gulf HUGE ARMY (1.25 million men) – half the territory of the Tang Use of steel/iron – sources in the north Government monopoly by 11th c. – producing as much cast iron as 18th c. Great Britain Mass production 1100s - Gunpowder - impact

7 C. Economy and Society in Song China
Neo – Confucianism, Zhu Xi, ideal human – the sage Chan Buddhism (Zen in Japan) – mental discipline Rigorous examinations for bureaucratic offices Social implications of scoring well/poorly on exams Printing – woodblock to moveable type Mass printing of books, exam materials, instructions on cultivation Agriculture south of the Yangzi River, plow/rakes, control of malaria Migration to the south, displacement of native people 1100 – population in Chinese territories over 100 million Large cities Problems in cities – waste management, water supply, etc. City of Hangzhou Credit – “flying money” Government issued paper money - inflation Cost of military expenditures Sold rights to collect taxes New social hierarchy based on new sources of wealth – MODERN – growth of middle class and private capitalism seen in 18th c. Europe Women’s rights/education Development of footbinding – status symbol

8 IV. New Kingdoms in East Asia
Expanding Confucian world view targeted the south Cultivation of rice needed structured society Korea, Japan and Vietnam all centralized power during the Tang period – saw Buddhism and Confucianism as compatible Korea Mountains, little agricultural land Early 500s - kingdom of Silla (south); power of landowners, Koguryo kingdom in north, after 688 Silla ruled but needed support of Tang After early 900s (fall of Tang) house of Koryo united peninsula – alliance with the Song Koryo kings supported Buddhism – woodblock printing from 700s Process of woodblock printing, advances…

9 B. Japan Geography Mid 600s Yamato followed Tang government Architecture, Buddhism No walls, Mandate of Heaven Unchanging Tenno dynasty, role of prime minister and Shinto Kyoto Fujiwara family – cultural development, Confucianism Power of warriors, civil war Education of women – The Tale of Genji Kamakura Shogunate – Buddhism, rise of samurai C. Vietnam Red River and Mekong, irrigation systems “Annam” – Confucian bureaucratic training, Mahayana Buddhism 936 – Dai Viet – good relations with Song Rivalry wit Champa (south) – foreign influences Champa and voluntary tribute – Champa rice Confucian hierarchy – differences in treatment of women

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