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Chapter 16, Section 3 The Cold War Expands

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1 Chapter 16, Section 3 The Cold War Expands

2 Objectives Describe the causes and results of the arms race between the US and Soviet Union. Explain how Eisenhower’s response to communism differed from that of Truman. Analyze worldwide Cold War conflicts that erupted in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and other places. 4. Discuss the effects of Soviet efforts in space exploration.

3 The Cold War Expands After the Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb
In 1949, Pres. Truman reports to the nation that the nature of war had forever changed.

4 The Cold War Expands By 1950, The US and Soviet Union were the two most powerful nations in the world. Conflicting ideologies and goals led to worldwide struggle for influence Policies followed by both helped shape modern history of much of world. -from Latin American to Middle East

5 The Arms Race Heightens Tensions
A chg. in the balance of power usually occur over decades or centuries; sometimes at the blink of an eye On September 2, 1949 instruments in B-29 American bomber flying over Alaska detected unusual atmospheric radiation -cloud drifting eastward from Siberia American scientist analyzed data, came to conclusion Soviet Union set off atomic bomb.

6 Communist Advance Shocks the Nation
US believed Soviets years from developing atom bomb Americans no longer has monopoly on atomic weapons News the Soviets had bomb followed next month by communist take over in China Shortly, Americans sensed world a much more dangerous and threatening place

7 Nuclear Arsenals Expand
Three months later, Truman ordered Atomic Energy Commission to produce hydrogen bomb -developers predicted H-bomb 1,000 times more powerful than atomic bombs -hoped to restore US advantage over Soviets

8 Nuclear Arsenal Expands
J. Robert Oppenheimer and Albert Einstein opposed developing H-bomb -claimed it would lead to perpetual arms race Others argued Soviets would continue to develop more powerful weapons no matter what US did

9 Nuclear Arsenal Expands
1952, US test first H-bomb One year later Soviets test their own. More bombs and tests followed -tests conducted above ground -spew radioactive waste into atmosphere -tests done in American West; Nevada desert -led to increased atmospheric radiation and long term health problems for people living downwind Nuclear Arsenal Expands

10 Nuclear Arsenal Expands
Next 4 decades US and Soviets developed and stockpiled increasingly powerful nuclear weapons -armed planes, submarines and missiles with nuclear warheads able to destroy each other many times over Both sides hoped the program of mutually assured destruction would stop each other from actually using them

11 Checkpoint Question Why did Us government decide to build a hydrogen bomb?

12 Eisenhower Introduces New Policies
Eisenhower knew first hand the horrors of war -led WWII Allied invasion of North Africa, Italy, and Normandy -worked with both top military leaders and political leaders during war and spoke their language -accepted much of Truman’s foreign policy -believed strongly in containing communism

13 Eisenhower Introduces New Policies
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, under Eisenhower was a diplomat that helped organize the UN after WWII -endorsed President’s vision of role US should play in the world. Ike and Dulles differed from Truman and Acheson. Both considered spread of communism greatest threat to free world Ike felt Truman approach of endless series of conflicts threatened to drain country’s resources

14 Eisenhower Favors Massive Retaliation

15 Eisenhower Favors Massive Retaliation
Opposed spending billion on conventional forces and weapons Focused on stockpiling nuclear weapons and building planes, missiles, and subs needed to deliver them Ike’s new policy drew criticism -Conservatives felt downgrading conventional forces would weaken American defense -Liberals feared preparing for nuclear war made war more likely

16 Eisenhower Favors Massive Retaliation
Dulles believed that only by going to brink of war could US protect allies, discourage communist aggression, and prevent war Dulles’s approach became known as “brinkmanship”

17 Stalin’s Death EasesTensions
March 5, 1953, Joseph Stalin died Death set off short power struggle Nikita Khrushchev soon emerged as new head of Soviet Union -a communist -determined opponent of US -not as suspicious or cruel as Stalin -condemned excesses of Stalin regime -inched toward more peaceful relations with West

18 Stalin’s Death EasesTensions
July 1955, Khrushchev met Eisenhower in Geneva Meeting yielded few results Did seem a small move toward “peaceful co-existence of the two powers

19 Checkpoint Question How was Eisenhower’s approach to foreign affairs different from that of Truman?

20 The Cold War Goes Global
Peaceful co-existence was easier to imagine than it was to practice. US and Soviet Union deeply divided Soviet Union would not allow free elections in area it controlled -continued to attempt to spread communism around world Dulles talked about “rolling back” communism and liberating countries under Soviet rule

21 Unrest Explodes Behind the Iron Curtain
1956, workers in Poland rioted against Soviet rule -won greater control of their government -did not attempt to leave Warsaw Pact -Soviets permitted actions

22 Unrest Explodes Behind the Iron Curtain
Hungarian students and workers organized huge demonstrations -demanded pro-Soviet officials be replaced -wanted Soviet troops withdrawn -wanted noncommunist political parties organized Khrushchev responded brutally -sent in troops and tanks to crush revolution -executed revolution’s leaders -killed hundreds -restores hard-line communists to power

23 Unrest Explodes Behind the Iron Curtain
Americans could only watch in horror Eisenhower’s massive retaliation approach was powerless Hungarian revolt added a new level of hostility to international relations -1956 Olympic Games, held in Nov. in Melbourne, Australia, bitter feelings surfaced -Water-polo match betw, Soviet Union and Hungary turned into what Sportswriters called “blood in the water” match

24 The U.S. Defuses the Suez Crisis
US involved in another world conflict, the Middle East Egypt’s president Gamal Abdel Nasser tried to use US-Soviet rivalry to his advantage -wanted to construct dam on Nile River at Aswan -US and Britain offered to fund project -when Nassar recog. People’s Republic of China and opened talks with Soviets; Eisenhower adm. withdrew offer

25 The U.S. Defuses the Suez Crisis
Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal; under government control -canal connects Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea -originally managed by a British-French company and protected by British armed forces.

26 The U.S. Defuses the Suez Crisis
Nasser’s action threatened flow of Middle Eastern oil to Europe Britain and France plotted to get canal back into Western hands -did not consult US -joined forces with Israel (young nation suffered freq, raids along Egypt’s border) -Britain and France used Suez Crisis as excuse to seize control of canal Eisenhower outraged by this -rather than support W. allies, criticized them -refused to supply them with US oil Without US support, these 3 nations had to withdraw troops from Egypt.

27 Eisenhower Promises Strong Action
January 1957, in response to Soviet influence in Middle East and elsewhere, Eisenhower makes statement -know as Eisenhower Doctrine -announces US would use force to help any Middle Eastern nation threatened by communism -uses doctrine to justify in 1958, sending troops into Lebanon to put down revolt against pro- American Government

28 Eisenhower Promises Strong Action
Eisenhower adm. uses CIA in struggle against communism -Congress creates CIA in 1947 -intelligence gathering organization Eisenhower adds new task -approves covert operations to protect American interests -1953 aided a coup that installed new gov. in Iran -1954, similar mission in Guatemala Mission successful, but caused long-term resentment against US

29 The Cold War Blasts Off Into Space
October 4, 1957, Soviets launch 184-pound steel ball with small transmitter into orbit of Earth. Named this “Sputnik 1. Following month launch larger satellite with a dog in it named “Laika” -wanted to see how living creature react to life in outer space -dog dies in orbit

30 The Cold War Blasts Off Into Space

31 The Cold War Blasts Off Into Space
Americans shocked, long thought superior technology would keep US ahead of Soviets “Would this give Soviets rocket power to launch missiles onto US cities?” Congress quickly approves “National Defense Education Act” -$1 billion program -produce more scientists and teachers of science -authorized money for HS and college students to continue education in science Congress also created “National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) -coordinate space-related efforts of American scientists and military.

32 Checkpoint Question How did the Hungarian and Suez crises of 1956 raise Cold War tensions?

33 Objectives Describe the causes and results of the arms race between the US and Soviet Union. Explain how Eisenhower’s response to communism differed from that of Truman. Analyze worldwide Cold War conflicts that erupted in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and other places. 4. Discuss the effects of Soviet efforts in space exploration.

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