2ObjectivesDescribe the causes and results of the arms race between the US and Soviet Union.Explain how Eisenhower’s response to communism differed from that of Truman.Analyze worldwide Cold War conflicts that erupted in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and other places.4. Discuss the effects of Soviet efforts in space exploration.
3The Cold War Expands After the Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb In 1949, Pres. Truman reports to the nation that the nature of war had forever changed.
4The Cold War ExpandsBy 1950, The US and Soviet Union were the two most powerful nations in the world.Conflicting ideologies and goals led to worldwide struggle for influencePolicies followed by both helped shape modern history of much of world.-from Latin American to Middle East
5The Arms Race Heightens Tensions A chg. in the balance of power usually occur over decades or centuries; sometimes at the blink of an eyeOn September 2, 1949 instruments in B-29 American bomber flying over Alaska detected unusual atmospheric radiation-cloud drifting eastward from SiberiaAmerican scientist analyzed data,came to conclusion Soviet Unionset off atomic bomb.
6Communist Advance Shocks the Nation US believed Soviets years from developing atom bombAmericans no longer has monopoly on atomic weaponsNews the Soviets had bomb followed next month by communist take over in ChinaShortly, Americans sensed world a much more dangerous and threatening place
7Nuclear Arsenals Expand Three months later, Truman ordered Atomic Energy Commission to produce hydrogen bomb-developers predicted H-bomb1,000 times more powerful thanatomic bombs-hoped to restore US advantageover Soviets
8Nuclear Arsenal Expands J. Robert Oppenheimer and Albert Einstein opposed developing H-bomb-claimed it would lead to perpetual arms raceOthers argued Soviets would continue to develop more powerful weapons no matter what US did
9Nuclear Arsenal Expands 1952, US test first H-bombOne year later Soviets test their own.More bombs and tests followed-tests conducted aboveground-spew radioactive waste intoatmosphere-tests done in American West;Nevada desert-led to increased atmosphericradiation and long term healthproblems for people living downwindNuclear Arsenal Expands
10Nuclear Arsenal Expands Next 4 decades US and Soviets developed and stockpiled increasingly powerful nuclear weapons-armed planes, submarines andmissiles with nuclear warheadsable to destroy each other manytimes overBoth sides hoped the program of mutually assured destruction would stop each other from actually using them
11Checkpoint QuestionWhy did Us government decide to build a hydrogen bomb?
12Eisenhower Introduces New Policies Eisenhower knew first hand the horrors of war-led WWII Allied invasion ofNorth Africa, Italy, and Normandy-worked with both top militaryleaders and political leaders duringwar and spoke their language-accepted much of Truman’s foreignpolicy-believed strongly in containingcommunism
13Eisenhower Introduces New Policies Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, under Eisenhower was a diplomat that helped organize the UN after WWII-endorsed President’s vision of role USshould play in the world.Ike and Dulles differed from Truman and Acheson.Both considered spread of communism greatest threat to free worldIke felt Truman approach of endless series of conflicts threatened to drain country’s resources
15Eisenhower Favors Massive Retaliation Opposed spending billion on conventional forces and weaponsFocused on stockpiling nuclear weapons and building planes, missiles, and subs needed to deliver themIke’s new policy drew criticism-Conservatives felt downgradingconventional forces would weakenAmerican defense-Liberals feared preparing fornuclear war made war more likely
16Eisenhower Favors Massive Retaliation Dulles believed that only by going to brink of war could US protect allies, discourage communist aggression, and prevent warDulles’s approach became known as “brinkmanship”
17Stalin’s Death EasesTensions March 5, 1953, Joseph Stalin diedDeath set off short power struggleNikita Khrushchev soon emerged as new head of Soviet Union-a communist-determined opponent of US-not as suspicious or cruel asStalin-condemned excesses of Stalinregime-inched toward more peacefulrelations with West
18Stalin’s Death EasesTensions July 1955, Khrushchev met Eisenhower in GenevaMeeting yielded few resultsDid seem a small move toward “peaceful co-existence of the two powers
19Checkpoint QuestionHow was Eisenhower’s approach to foreign affairs different from that of Truman?
20The Cold War Goes Global Peaceful co-existence was easier to imagine than it was to practice.US and Soviet Union deeply dividedSoviet Union would not allow free elections in area it controlled-continued to attempt to spread communism around worldDulles talked about “rolling back” communism and liberating countries under Soviet rule
21Unrest Explodes Behind the Iron Curtain 1956, workers in Poland rioted against Soviet rule-won greater control of theirgovernment-did not attempt to leave WarsawPact-Soviets permitted actions
22Unrest Explodes Behind the Iron Curtain Hungarian students and workers organized huge demonstrations-demanded pro-Soviet officials bereplaced-wanted Soviet troops withdrawn-wanted noncommunist politicalparties organizedKhrushchev responded brutally-sent in troops and tanks to crushrevolution-executed revolution’s leaders-killed hundreds-restores hard-line communists to power
23Unrest Explodes Behind the Iron Curtain Americans could only watch in horrorEisenhower’s massive retaliation approach was powerlessHungarian revolt added a new level of hostility to international relations-1956 Olympic Games, held in Nov. in Melbourne,Australia, bitter feelings surfaced-Water-polo match betw, Soviet Union andHungary turned into what Sportswriters called“blood in the water” match
24The U.S. Defuses the Suez Crisis US involved in another world conflict, the Middle EastEgypt’s president Gamal Abdel Nasser tried to use US-Soviet rivalry to his advantage-wanted to construct dam onNile River at Aswan-US and Britain offered to fundproject-when Nassar recog.People’s Republic of China andopened talks with Soviets;Eisenhower adm. withdrewoffer
25The U.S. Defuses the Suez Crisis Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal; under government control-canal connects Mediterranean Seawith Red Sea-originally managed by a British-Frenchcompany and protected by Britisharmed forces.
26The U.S. Defuses the Suez Crisis Nasser’s action threatened flow of Middle Eastern oil to EuropeBritain and France plotted to get canal back into Western hands-did not consult US-joined forces with Israel (young nationsuffered freq, raids along Egypt’sborder)-Britain and France used Suez Crisis asexcuse to seize control of canalEisenhower outraged by this-rather than support W. allies, criticizedthem-refused to supply them with US oilWithout US support, these 3 nations had to withdraw troops from Egypt.
27Eisenhower Promises Strong Action January 1957, in response to Soviet influence in Middle East and elsewhere, Eisenhower makes statement-know as Eisenhower Doctrine-announces US would use force tohelp any Middle Eastern nationthreatened by communism-uses doctrine to justify in 1958,sending troops into Lebanon to putdown revolt against pro- AmericanGovernment
28Eisenhower Promises Strong Action Eisenhower adm. uses CIA in struggle against communism-Congress creates CIA in 1947-intelligence gatheringorganizationEisenhower adds new task-approves covert operations toprotect American interests-1953 aided a coup thatinstalled new gov. in Iran-1954, similar mission inGuatemalaMission successful, but causedlong-term resentment against US
29The Cold War Blasts Off Into Space October 4, 1957, Soviets launch 184-pound steel ball with small transmitter into orbit of Earth.Named this “Sputnik 1.Following month launch larger satellite with a dog in it named “Laika”-wanted to see how living creature react to life in outer space-dog dies in orbit
31The Cold War Blasts Off Into Space Americans shocked, long thought superior technology would keep US ahead of Soviets“Would this give Soviets rocket power to launch missiles onto UScities?”Congress quickly approves “National Defense Education Act”-$1 billion program-produce more scientists and teachers of science-authorized money for HS and college students to continueeducation in scienceCongress also created “National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA)-coordinate space-related efforts of American scientists andmilitary.
32Checkpoint QuestionHow did the Hungarian and Suez crises of 1956 raise Cold War tensions?
33ObjectivesDescribe the causes and results of the arms race between the US and Soviet Union.Explain how Eisenhower’s response to communism differed from that of Truman.Analyze worldwide Cold War conflicts that erupted in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and other places.4. Discuss the effects of Soviet efforts in space exploration.