2 I. Brinkmanship rules U.S. Policy A. Race for the H-Bomb1. The H-bomb or Hydrogen bomb would have the force of 1 million tons of TNT (67 times the amount of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.2. On Nov. 1, 1952 the U.S. exploded their first H-bomb and in August 1953 the Soviet Union exploded their first H-bomb.
5 B. Policy of Brinkmanship 1. Policy of Dwight D. Eisenhower.2. Sec of State John-Foster Dulles, was staunchly anti-communist and he believed the Cold War was a moral crusade against communism.3. Brinkmanship was the policy of willing to go to the edge of an all-out war to stop Communism.
8 II. The Cold War Spreads Around the World A. CIA1. Iran’s prime minister Mohammed Mossadegh scared the U.S. because they feared he would sell oil to the Soviet Union so the CIA gave millions to Mossadegh’s opponents and the Shah of Iran came to power.2. Eisenhower feared a communist government in Guatemala so the the CIA trained an army that overthrew the president.
11 B. Warsaw Pact1. In response to West Germany rearming and joining NATO the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact with seven Eastern European countries.
12 C. The Suez War1. The Egyptian head of government, Gamal Abdel-Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and took it away from Great Britain and France.2. Nasser would not let ships pass through the canal to Israel.3. Israel, Great Britain, and France sent troops, but the UN convinced the nations to withdraw their troops, and Egypt stopped blocking the canal.
15 D. Eisenhower Doctrine1. In response to the Soviet Union’s growing influence in the Middle East Eisenhower issued a warning that said the U.S would defend the Middle East against an attack by any Communist country.
16 E. Hungarian Uprising1. In 1956 the Hungarian people revolted against the Soviet Union , calling for a democratic government.2. In response the Soviet army rolled in and killed 30,000 Hungarians.3. The U.S. and UN condemned the Soviet Union, but did nothing to help Hungary.
19 III. A New Soviet Leader A. Nikita Khrushchev 1. Believed communism would take over the world.2. However, favored a policy peaceful coexistence in which the Soviet Union and U.S. would compete economically and scientifically.
20 IV. The Cold War Takes to the Skies A. The Space Race1. On Oct. 4, 1957 the Soviets launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite.2. Americans were shocked at the triumph of Soviet technology, but on Jan. 31, 1958 the U.S. launched their first satellite.
22 B. U-2 Incident1. Since 1955, the U.S. had been making secret U-2 flights over the Soviet Union.2. On May 15, 1960 Francis Gary Powers, U-2 pilot had his plane shot down.3. Khruschev demanded an apology, but Eisenhower promised to stop the flights, but did not apologize.