Presentation on theme: "Eisenhower’s Policies Chapter 13, Section 4 America, 1952: Most American’s are ready for a change. American’s felt Truman’s foreign policy was not working."— Presentation transcript:
Eisenhower’s Policies Chapter 13, Section 4 America, 1952: Most American’s are ready for a change. American’s felt Truman’s foreign policy was not working. The Soviet Union had acquired the Atomic Bomb They had strengthened their hold in Eastern Europe. China had fallen to communism.
American troops are fighting again, this time in Korea The Election of 1952 – American’s were looking for a strong leader to lead them through the Cold War. Republican Eisenhower was elected by a landslide War hero from WWII – led the Allied command in Europe, lead D-Day invasion.
Eisenhower and the Bomb: Eisenhower believed – The key to winning the Cold War was having a strong economy and prosperity. That large-scale conventional wars would break the nation, and that the way to go was in nuclear power. More Bang for the Buck – the use of all forms of nuclear weapons.
Eisenhower believed that communism could not be contained fighting small, conventional wars all around the world. He thought the way to contain communism was to threaten to use nuclear weapons. This policy came to be known as “massive retaliation” – if you attack us, we will use nuclear weapons on you and destroy you.
This new policy allowed Eisenhower to cut millions of dollars in military spending, from $50 billion to $34 billion. But at the same time he increased America’s arsenal of nuclear weapons from 1,000 bombs in 1953 to 18,000 nuclear bombs in 1961 when he left office.
To deliver the nuclear weapons, the U.S. unveiled the newest bombers, the B-52s. And also the Inter- Continental Ballistic Missiles – “ICBM” rockets with bombs on them.
The Soviet response? Sputnik The first artificial (man-made) satellite to orbit the earth. This technology: Triumphed American technology Told Americans that they were technologically behind the Soviets. Causes America to create NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Create the National Defense Education Act.
Brinksmanship: The willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down. First used in the Korean War – the U.S. (President Eisenhower) quietly let the Chinese know that we might continue the war in Korea “under circumstances of our own choosing.” A hint to the use of nuclear weapons. China got it – they pressured the North Koreans to sign an armistice.
The Taiwan Crisis: The newly communists Chinese sought to forcefully take Nationalist Taiwan back, and used force in attacking two smaller nationalists held islands off China. Eisenhower went to Congress and asked for the power to use force to combat the Chinese. Again, Eisenhower hinted to the Chinese that the U.S. navy would as much force as it would take to keep Taiwan Nationalist. (hint – nuclear) Again, China got it and backed off.
The point is this – Eisenhower would use nuclear weapons if absolutely necessary. But he was much more effective using the “threat” of using nuclear weapons as a deterrent (leverage) to preventing war. The Suez Canal Crisis – a diplomatic victory for the Soviet Union, who would later establish a better relationship with Egypt than the Americans were able to.
Fighting Communism Covertly: (Covertly = secretly) How? Through the CIA, spies and other operatives infiltrated various positions in other nations in order to sabotage and manipulate situations to the advantage of the Americans.
Examples of CIA involvement in other nations: Iran – The U.S. organized a coup to topple the government and put in a government more friendly to the U.S. Guatemala – The U.S. armed forces who opposed the communist backed leadership. They trained them in Nicaragua and Honduras and then overthrew the Guatemalan government and installed a government more friendly to the U.S.
Hungary: After Stalin died in the Soviet Union, Eisenhower seized the opportunity to have the CIA conduct covert operations in Hungary to cause a rebellion and throw off communism. The newly appointed communist leader, Nikita Khrushchev, sent in thousands of tanks and soldiers and crushed the rebellion.
Eisenhower embarrassed by Khrushchev in Paris. Tensions began to improve by late 1959 and Khrushchev and Eisenhower prepared for a summit in Paris, France in Shortly before the summit, a U-2 spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers, was shot down over Russia, spying on Russia. Eisenhower had previously denied Soviet accusations of the U.S. spying on them.
Eisenhower claimed that what the Soviets had shot down was a weather plane that had strayed off course. Then Khrushchev produced the American pilot for all the world to see. Eisenhower was caught in a lie. Khrushchev left the summit before it ever started. The Cold War continues.
Eisenhower’s term as President would end early in John F. Kennedy was elected after him. But before he left he warned Americans to be on guard against the new relationship building between industry and the military – which is referred to as a military-industrial complex in America. It would lead to a massive build up of weapons and more Cold War tensions.