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The Eisenhower Years 1952-1960 26.3 The Global Cold War.

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Presentation on theme: "The Eisenhower Years 1952-1960 26.3 The Global Cold War."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Eisenhower Years The Global Cold War

2 Sec of State John Foster Dulles Conservative & religious Cold Warrior Conservative & religious Cold Warrior Advised Eisenhower on foreign policy Advised Eisenhower on foreign policy Aggressive against communism! Aggressive against communism!

3 Ikes Cold War Strategy Ikes Cold War Strategy Rollback: attempt to liberate communist countries Rollback: attempt to liberate communist countries Form more anti-communist alliance systems (SEATO, CENTO) Form more anti-communist alliance systems (SEATO, CENTO) Covert-Ops: secret political & military actions done by CIA Covert-Ops: secret political & military actions done by CIA

4 Massive Retaliation: threaten Soviets with nuclear attack to halt their aggression. Massive Retaliation: threaten Soviets with nuclear attack to halt their aggression. a.k.a. Brinkmanship a.k.a. Brinkmanship Ike & Dulles strategy was risky, but less-expensive & mutually frightening.

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6 Nikita Khrushchev Becomes Soviet Premier (1954)

7 Rise of Third World Nationalism Poor, agrarian, former colonies of western nations. Poor, agrarian, former colonies of western nations. Began to gain independence after WWII Began to gain independence after WWII Wanted to control own destiny, became battleground of Cold War Wanted to control own destiny, became battleground of Cold War

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9 Trouble in the Middle East Coveted by USA & USSR for its strategic location & oil reserves Coveted by USA & USSR for its strategic location & oil reserves 1948: Arab-Israeli War 1948: Arab-Israeli War Jews in Palestine found State of Israel Jews in Palestine found State of Israel US befriends Israel (Jewish vote) US befriends Israel (Jewish vote) War creates refugee problem War creates refugee problem Arabs felt cheated by the West Arabs felt cheated by the West

10 Purple State of Israel Green Palestinian state Jerusalem UN City until 1949 Lt Purple annexed by Israel

11 CIA Stages Coups in the Third World Both staged to protect private business interests Both staged to protect private business interests Both overthrew democratic leaders and installed dictators Both overthrew democratic leaders and installed dictators Both led to US losing prestige in Third World. Both led to US losing prestige in Third World.

12 1953: Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadeq is overthrown for nationalizing Irans Oil at expense of Anglo-Iranian Oil Co 1953: Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadeq is overthrown for nationalizing Irans Oil at expense of Anglo-Iranian Oil Co Shah Reza Pahlevi installed as king Shah Reza Pahlevi installed as king 1954: Guatemalan President Arbenz overthrown for seizing land owned by United Fruit Company. 1954: Guatemalan President Arbenz overthrown for seizing land owned by United Fruit Company. Series of Military dictators are installed Series of Military dictators are installed

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15 The Suez Crisis (1956) 1954: Egypt independent, but Brits & French still own Canal. 1954: Egypt independent, but Brits & French still own Canal. Egyptian Pres. Nasser wants $$$ for Aswan Dam = Dulles only agreed to pay $45 million Egyptian Pres. Nasser wants $$$ for Aswan Dam = Dulles only agreed to pay $45 million Nasser asked Soviets for $ = so Dulles withdrew his offer! Nasser asked Soviets for $ = so Dulles withdrew his offer!

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17 Nasser seized Suez to pay for dam. Nasser seized Suez to pay for dam. Britain, France, Israel attack Egypt w/out US approval Britain, France, Israel attack Egypt w/out US approval Soviets threaten west with Nukes Soviets threaten west with Nukes Ike & UN reprimanded our allies and forced them to leave Egypt Ike & UN reprimanded our allies and forced them to leave Egypt

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20 Hungarian Uprising (1956) Anti-Soviet Hungarians revolt & demand democracy! Anti-Soviet Hungarians revolt & demand democracy! Khrushchev sends tanks to brutally crush the revolt. Khrushchev sends tanks to brutally crush the revolt. US powerless to help at time US powerless to help at time

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22 Negotiations with the Soviets 1959: Nixon visited USSR & then Khrushchev visited USA 1959: Nixon visited USSR & then Khrushchev visited USA Tensions were high, but they planned a peace summit for Tensions were high, but they planned a peace summit for May 1960: Khrushchev cancelled summit after Soviets shoot down American U2 spy-plane over Russia. May 1960: Khrushchev cancelled summit after Soviets shoot down American U2 spy-plane over Russia. Chance for peace is ruined! Chance for peace is ruined!

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