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© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 1 Modern Management 9 th edition.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 2 Objectives A basic understanding of human motivation Insights into various human needs An appreciation for the importance of motivating organization members An understanding of various motivation strategies.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 3 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Defining Motivation Process Theories of Motivation The Needs-Goal Theory of Motivation The Role of Individual Needs The Vroom Expectancy Theory of Motivation Motivation and Perceptions.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 4 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Figure 16.1 The needs-goal theory of motivation.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 5 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Figure 16.2 Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation in equation form.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 6 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Process Theories of Motivation (con’t) Equity Theory of Motivation Adams found these reactions to right an inequity: 1. Change work inputs 2. Change compensation 3. Change perception of inequality 4. Quit job Perceptions of inequities can arise in: Work assignments Promotions Ratings reports Office assignments Pay (most often).
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 7 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Process Theories of Motivation (con’t) The Porter-Lawler Theory of Motivation Consistent with Needs-Goal and Vroom Expectancy theories but provides a more complete description The Motivation Process In addition Porter-Lawler stresses: 1. Perceived value determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards 2. Task accomplishment determined by: Perception of requirements to perform task Ability to perform task 3. Perceived fairness influences amount of satisfaction.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 8 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Figure 16.3 The Porter-Lawler theory of motivation.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 9 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Security or safety Social Esteem Self-actualization Alderfer’s ERG Theory 1. Existence 2. Relatedness 3. Growth.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 10 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Figure 16.4 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 11 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs (con’t) Argyris’ Maturity-Immaturity Continuum From infant’s To adult’s 1.State of passivityState of increasing activity 2.State of dependence on othersState of relative independence 3.Being capable of behavingBeing capable of behaving only in a few waysin many different ways 4.Having erratic, casual, shallow,Having deeper, more lasting interests and quickly dropped interests 5. Having a short time perspectiveHaving much longer time perspective 6. Being in a subordinate positionAspiring to occupy equal / superordinate 7. Lack of self-awarenessAwareness and control over self.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 12 T HE M OTIVATION P ROCESS Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs (con’t) McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Need for Achievement (nAch) Need for Power (nPower) Need for Affiliation (nAff).
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 13 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS The Importance of Motivating Organization Members Strategies for Motivating Organization Members Managerial Communication Theory X–Theory Y.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 14 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS Figure 16.5 Unsatisfied needs of organization members resulting in either appropriate or inappropriate behavior.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 15 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS Strategies for Motivating Organization Members (con’t) Job Design Earlier Job Design Strategies Job Rotation Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Hygiene Motivating Job Enrichment and Productivity Flextime Advantages of Flextime.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 16 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS Table 16.1 Herzberg’s Hygiene Factors and Motivators Dissatisfaction:Satisfaction: Hygiene or Maintenance FactorsMotivating Factors 1. Company policy and administration1. Opportunity for achievement 2. Supervision2. Opportunity for recognition 3. Relationship with supervisor3. Work itself 4. Relationship with peers4. Responsibility 5. Working conditions5. Advancement 6. Salary6. Personal growth 7. Relationship with subordinates.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 17 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS Figure 16.6 Needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that desirable hygiene and motivating factors generally satisfy.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 18 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS Table 16.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Flextime Programs Advantages Improved employee attitude and morale Accommodation of working parents Decreased tardiness Fewer commuting problems—workers can avoid congested streets and highways Accommodation of those who wish to arrive at work before normal workday interruptions begin Increased production Facilitation of employees scheduling of medical, dental, and other types of appointments Accommodation of leisure-time activities of employees Decreased absenteeism Decreased turnover Disadvantages Lack of supervision during some hours of work Key people unavailable at certain times Understaffing at times Problem of accommodating employees whose output is the input for other employees Employee abuse of flextime program Difficulty in planning work schedules Problem of keeping track of hours worked or accumulated Inability to schedule meetings at convenient times Inability to coordinate projects.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 19 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS Strategies for Motivating Organization Members (con’t) Behavior Modification Reinforcement Positive Negative Punishment Applying Behavior Modification Feedback system Other successful behavior modifications are: 1. Giving different rewards according to performance 2. Telling workers what they are doing wrong 3. Punishing workers privately 4. Always giving out earned rewards and punishments.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 20 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS Strategies for Motivating Organization Members (con’t) Likert’s Management Systems System 1—Lack of confidence or trust in subordinates System 2—Condescending master-to servant style confidence and trust System 3—Substantial confidence System 4—Complete trust and confidence Styles, Systems, and Productivity Monetary Incentives Nonmonetary Incentives.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 21 M OTIVATING O RGANIZATION M EMBERS Figure 16.7 Comparative long-term and short-term effects of system 1 and system 4 on organizational production.
© Prentice Hall, 2002 16 - 22 Chapter Sixteen Questions
© Prentice Hall, © Prentice Hall, ObjectivesObjectives 1.A basic understanding of human motivation 2.Insights into various human.
ObjectivesObjectives 1.A basic understanding of human motivation 2.Insights into various human needs 3.An appreciation for the importance of motivating.
C h a p t e r 16 GLOSSARYGLOSSARY EXIT Glossary Modern Management, 9 th edition Click on terms for definitions Alderfer’s ERG theory Argyris’ maturity-immaturity.
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