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© 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 1 CHAPTER 12 MOTIVATION

2 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 2 Lecture outline Nature of motivation Needs theories Cognitive theories Reinforcement theory Social learning theory

3 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 3 Nature of motivation Motivation is the force energising or, giving direction to, behaviour. It is a complex interaction of behaviours, needs, rewards/reinforcement and cognitive activities.

4 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 4 Nature of motivation ability motivation environmental conditions performance = x X

5 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 5 Needs theories Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow) Two-factor theory (Herzberg) ERG theory (Aldefer) Acquired needs theory (McClelland)

6 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 6 Needs theories Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow): Theory arguing that individual needs form a five-level hierarchy.

7 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 7 Needs theories Physiological Safety Belongingness Esteem Self-actualisation

8 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 8 Needs theories Two-factor theory (Herzberg) Herzbergs theory that hygiene factors are necessary to keep workers from feeling dissatisfied but, only motivators can lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated.

9 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 9 Needs theories Achievement Responsibility Work itself Recognition Growth Advancement Pay Working Conditions Supervisors Company Policies Fringe benefits Hygiene factors Motivators These factors help prevent dissatisfaction. These factors promote satisfaction.

10 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 10 Needs theories ERG theory (Aldefer) Alternative to Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, which argues that there are three levels of individual needs.

11 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 11 Needs theories Existence needs Physiological (food, water) Pay Benefits Working conditions Existence needs Physiological (food, water) Pay Benefits Working conditions Relatedness needs Relationships with family, work and professional groups Relatedness needs Relationships with family, work and professional groups Growth needs Creativity Innovation Productivity Growth needs Creativity Innovation Productivity Satisfaction-progression principle Frustration-regression principle Satisfaction-progression principle Frustration-regression principle

12 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 12 Needs theories Acquired needs theory (McClelland) Theory stating that our needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experiences.

13 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 13 Needs theories Acquired needs theory Developed by David McClelland cites the need for achievement, power, and affiliation as major motives in work Developed by David McClelland cites the need for achievement, power, and affiliation as major motives in work Need for achievement drive to excel Need for powerinfluence others behaviour Need for affiliationdesire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Need for achievement drive to excel Need for powerinfluence others behaviour Need for affiliationdesire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

14 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 14 Cognitive theories Expectancy theory Equity theory Goal-setting theory

15 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 15 Cognitive theories Expectancy theory (Vroom) Theory arguing that we consider three main issues (effort-performance, performance- outcome, valence) before we expend effort necessary to perform at a given level.

16 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 16 Cognitive theories Effort-performance expectancy Our assessment of the probability our efforts will lead to the required level of performance. Performance-outcome expectancy Our assessment of the probability our successful performance will lead to desired outcomes. Valence Our assessment of anticipated value of various outcomes or rewards.

17 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 17 Cognitive theories Equity theory (Adams) Theory arguing that we prefer situations of balance or, equity. Implications for managers: –Communication essential to assess equity/inequity perceptions in employees. –Complimentary to Expectancy theory.

18 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 18 Cognitive theories Goal-setting theory Goal-setting theory [technique] works by focussing attention & action, mobilising effort, increasing persistence, & encouraging the development of strategy to achieve goals.

19 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 19 Cognitive theories Reinforcement theory Theory arguing that our behaviour can be explained by consequences in the environment.

20 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 20 Cognitive theories Types of reinforcement: Positive Uses pleasant, rewarding consequences to encourage desired behaviour. Use of shaping. Negative (unpleasant) stimuli so an individual will engage in the desired behaviour to stop the stimuli.

21 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 21 Cognitive theories Types of reinforcement: Extinction Stopping previously available positive outcomes from a behaviour to decrease the behaviour. Punishment Providing negative consequences to decrease or discourage a behaviour.

22 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 22 Reinforcement theory Fixed interval: given on fixed time schedule. Uneven responses, extinction rapid if reinforcement late, or stops Fixed interval: given on fixed time schedule. Uneven responses, extinction rapid if reinforcement late, or stops Fixed ratio: given after fixed number of cases of desired behaviour. High response rates, rapid extinguishment if stopped even temporarily. Fixed ratio: given after fixed number of cases of desired behaviour. High response rates, rapid extinguishment if stopped even temporarily. Variable ratio: given on variable or random frequency of behaviour basis. High response rate, very slow extinguishment Variable ratio: given on variable or random frequency of behaviour basis. High response rate, very slow extinguishment Variable interval: given on variable or random time basis. High, steady response rate, slow extinguishment, if stopped Variable interval: given on variable or random time basis. High, steady response rate, slow extinguishment, if stopped Using reinforcement theory: encourage desired behaviour, be clear on what is desired. Use variable interval & variable ratio reinforcement. Punish moderately severely & promptly. Using reinforcement theory: encourage desired behaviour, be clear on what is desired. Use variable interval & variable ratio reinforcement. Punish moderately severely & promptly.

23 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 23 Social learning theory Social learning theory (Bandura) Theory arguing that learning occurs through continuous reciprocal interaction of our behaviours, various personal factors and environmental forces.

24 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 24 Social learning theory Learning occurs by continuous interaction between our behaviours, personal factors and environmental forces, viz: Symbolic processes Self-control/regulation Vicarious learning.

25 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 25 Lecture summary Nature of motivation –Motivational process –Motivation & performance. Needs theories –Hierarchy of needs –Two-factor –ERG –Acquired needs.

26 © 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. PowerPoint Slides t/a Management: A Pacific Rim Focus Enhanced Edition. Slides prepared by David Meacheam & George Sansbury. 26 Lecture summary Cognitive theories – Expectancy –Equity –Goal-setting. Reinforcement theory Positive, negative, extinction, punishment as reinforcement. Social learning theory Symbolic processes, self-control, vicarious learning.


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