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© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Motivation Work Effort = A Willingness to Perform OP = I x WE x OS That is, WHY SOME PEOPLE WORK HARDER THAN OTHERS (MOTIVATION TO WORK)
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Why Is Motivation Important? TO UNDERSTAND PERSONAL DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE IN BOTH A DIFFERENT AS WELL AS IN THE SAME SITUATION MOTIVATION = HOW TO MOTIVATE PEOPLE AT THE WORKPLACE
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 What Is Motivation? PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESS THAT CAUSE: AROUSAL (evocation) DIRECTION INTENSITY PERSISTENCE (continuity) OF VOLUNTARY ACTIONS THAT ARE GOAL DIRECTED (certain productive behavior) MOTIVATION IS: A PROCESS CROSS-FUNCTIONAL
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 HRM Approach to Motivation ParticipationProductivity Satisfaction
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall Content Theories A) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self-actualization B) Alderfers ERG Theory Existence Relatedness Growth C) Hertzbergs Two-Factor Theory Motivators (cause satisfaction) Hygiene factors (cause dissatisfaction) D) McClellands Acquired Needs Theory: Not all people are motivated by the same needs Some people have a high need for: Achievement Affiliation Power Managerial implication of McClelland: MANAGERS SHOULD KNOW WHAT ARE THE NEEDS OF THEIR SUBORDINATES AND WHAT IS THE LEVEL OF THEIR SATISFACTION
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Process Theories A) Adams Equity Theory Individual reward/Individual inputs COMPARED TO Others reward / Others inputs B) Vrooms Expectancy Th. Motivation (M) Expectancy (E) Instrumentality (I) Valence (V) relate to each other by the equation: M = E x I x V E (Expectancy) = The probability assigned by an individual that work effort will be followed by a given level of achieved task performance I (Instrumentality) = the probability assigned by the individual that a given level of achieved task performance will lead to various work outcomes V (Valence) = the values attached by the individual to various work outcomes
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Vrooms Motivating Potential Score (MPS) MPS = Effort -> Performance -> Outcomes MPS = E x I x V (0-100%) (0-100%) Managerial Implication of the equation MPS = E x I x V If any of E,I,V is equal 0, motivation comes to 0
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Organizational Support = The Opportunity to Perform OP = I x WE x OS, i.e. adequate conditions to perform Typical Constrains: Lack of time Inadequate budgets or tools Equipment Unclear instructions & job-related information Lack of required service, etc.
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Motivation & Job Design Options ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURALIZATION CANNOT BE FINISHED JUST BY CREATION OF THE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE THIS STRUCTURE HAS TO INVOLVE ALSO JOB DESIGN JOB DESIGN IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURALIZATION JOB DESIGN IS THE PROCESS OF DEFINING JOB TASKS AND THE WORK ARRANGEMENTS TO ACCOMPISH THEM
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Options to Job Design JOB SPECIALIZATION JOB ROTATION JOB ENLARGEMENT JOB ENRICHMENT WORK TEAMS Job specialization (simplification) STANDARDIZES TASKS AND EMPLOYS PEOPLE IN VERY ROUTINE JOBS Job rotation INCREASES TASK VARIETY BY SHIFTING WORKERS AMONG JOBS INVOLVING TASKS OF SIMILAR DIFFICULTY Job enlargement INCREASES TASK VARIETY BY ADDING NEW TASKS OF SIMILAR DIFFICULTY TO A JOB Job enrichment INCREASES JOB CONTENT BY GIVING WORKERS MORE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATING DUTIES Work teams - GROUP MEMBERS WORK TOGETHER IN WAYS THAT UTILIZE THEIR SKILLS WELL TO ACCOMPLISH A PURPOSE
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Alternative Work Arrangements COMPRESSED WORKWEEKS FLEXIBLE WORKING HOURS JOB SHARING WORK AT HOME & THE VIRTUAL OFFICE (TELECOMMUTING) PART-TIME WORK
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Summary OP = I x WE x OS MANAGERIAL RESPONSIBILITY SPECIFICATION: Individual Attributes (I) Selection, HR Development Work Effort (WE) How to motivate people Organizational Support (OS) Creating appropriate conditions After that, managers have both AUTHORITY to demand RESPONSIBILITY for the subordinates high performance at the workplace
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Learning IS A RELATIVELY PERMANENT CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR THAT OCCURS AS A RESULT OF EXPERIENCE THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF LEARNING 1.Cognitive Learning IS A FORM OF LEARNING ACHIEVED BY THINKING ABOUT THE PERCEIVED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EVENTS AND INDIVIDUAL GOALS AND EXPECTATIONS 2.Social Learning IS LEARNING THAT IS ACHIEVED THROUGH THE RECIPROCAL INTERACTION BETWEEN PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Reinforcement PLAYS THE KEY ROLE IN THE LEARNING PROCESS REINFORCEMENT IS THE ADMINISTRATION OF A CONSEQUENCE AS A RESULT OF BEHAVIOR REINFORCEMENT COMES FROM THE LAW OF EFFECT: BEHAVIOR THAT RESULTS IN A PLEASANT OUTCOME IS LIKELY TO BE REPEATED BEHAVIOR THAT RESULTS IN AN UNPLEASANT OUTCOME IS NOT LIKELY TO BE REPEATED
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Important Reinforcer EXTRINSIC REWARDS ARE POSITIVELY VALUED WORK OUTCOMES THAT ARE GIVEN TO THE INDIVIDUAL BY SOME OTHER PERSON IN THE WORK SETTING (NICE OFFICE, PROMOTION, COMPLIMENTS, etc.) CONTRAST: INTRINSIC REWARDS ARE RECEIVED BY THE INDIVIDUAL DIRECTLY THROUGH TASK PERFORMANCE
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Reinforcement Strategies POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT (or avoidance) PUNISHMENT EXTINCTION
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Positive Reinforcement IS THE ADMINISTRATION OF POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES THAT TEND TO INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF REPEATING THE BEHAVIOR IN SIMILAR SETTINGS Ex: GREAT WORK, I WILL RECOMMEND YOU FOR A RAISE
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Negative Reinforcement IS THE WITHDRAWAL OF NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES THAT TEND TO INCREASE THE LIKELIHOOD OF REPEATING THE BEHAVIOR IN SIMILAR SETTINGS (IT MEANS THE WITHDRAWAL OF NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES WHEN DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR OCCURS) (WE USED TO CALL IT AVOIDANCE) Ex: AVOIDS BOSSS CRITICISM
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Punishment IS THE ADMINISTRATION OF NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES THAT TEND TO REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD OF REPEATING THE BEHAVIOR IN SIMILAR SETTINGS Ex: BOSSS CRITICISM
© J. Rudy, Organizational Behavior, FMCU, Fall 2007 Extinction IS THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE REINFORCING CONSEQUENCES FOR A GIVEN BEHAVIOR – THE BEHAVIOR IS NO LONGER REINFORCED (EXTINCTION IS INTENDED TO WEAKEN AND ELIMINATE UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOR) Ex: NO CRITICISM, NO PRAISE (BUT ALSO NO MONEY RAISE) Self-management = THE ABILITY TO MANAGE YOUR OWN EMOTIONS AND IMPULSES
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