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Motivation Organizational Behaviour Lecture No. 13 Zain Ul Abideen 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation Organizational Behaviour Lecture No. 13 Zain Ul Abideen 2."— Presentation transcript:


2 Motivation Organizational Behaviour Lecture No. 13 Zain Ul Abideen 2

3 Leaders are Readers Peter Drucker The Effective Executive (1967) Morale in an organization does not mean that people get along together; the test is performance, not conformance. Why are people motivated to do those things? VIDEOVIDEO 3

4 Elements of Work Motivation Direction of Behavior When faced with obstacles how hard does a person keep trying to perform a chosen behavior successfully? How hard does a person work to perform a chosen behavior? Which behaviors does a person choose to perform In an organization? Level of Effort Level of Persistence 4

5 Motivation Directly or Indirectly Dominates Organizational Behavior Personality….motivational propensities Psychological contracts Goal Setting Theory O.B. Modification Compensation Social Identity Theory WHY do people do what they do? What drives motivation to engage, motivation to withdraw, motivation to perform, motivation to quit? 5

6 Discuss Motivation is rarely the core issue Abilities Job Design Tools at Work Leadership All problems are not solved by having motivated employees 6

7 The Process of Motivation 7

8 Individual Approaches 8

9 Primary Motives Human motives are variously called physiological, biological, unlearned, or primary. Two criteria must be met in order for a motive to be included in the primary classification: It must be unlearned, and it must be physiologically based. Even though the brain pathways will be developed in different ways and people develop different appetites for the various physiological motives, they will all have essentially the same primary needs. What are some examples of Primary Motives? 9

10 General and Secondary Motives General Motives The Curiosity, Manipulation, and Activity Motives The Affection Motive Secondary Motives The Power Motive The Achievement Motive The Affiliation Motive The Security Motive The Status Motive Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motives Intrinsic- Behavior for its own sake Extrinsic- Based on acquisition of material or social rewards 10

11 David McClellands Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.


13 (e.g., from psychology to Org Behavior) From Individual to Work Motivation Approaches 13

14 Work-Motivation Approaches 14

15 Content Theories of Motivation 15

16 Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction Company policy & administration Supervision Interpersonal relations Working conditions Salary Status Security Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Salary? Motivation factors increase job satisfaction 16

17 The Content Theories of Work Motivation (Continued) 17

18 Process Theories of Motivation 18

19 Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs Valence: Value or importance placed on a particular reward Instrumentality: Belief that performance is related to rewards Expectancy: Belief that effort leads to performance 19

20 Expectancy Model of Motivation Performance (Instrumentality) Reward (Valence) Effort (Expectancy) Perceived effort– performance probability Perceived value of reward Perceived performance– reward probability If I work hard, will I get the job done? What rewards will I get when the job is well done? What rewards do I value? 20

21 Adamss Theory of Inequity Inequity - the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving 21

22 Motivational Theory of Social Exchange EquityOutcomes =Outcomes Inputs Inputs NegativeOutcomes Outcomes Inequity InputsInputs Person Comparison other 22

23 Strategies for Resolution of Inequity Alter the persons outcomes Alter the persons inputs Alter the comparison others outputs Alter the comparison others inputs Change who is used as a comparison other Rationalize the inequity Leave the organizational situation 23

24 New Perspectives on Equity Theory Equity Sensitive I prefer an equity ratio equal to that of my comparison other 24

25 New Perspectives on Equity Theory Benevolent I am comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of my comparison other 25

26 New Perspectives on Equity Theory Entitled I am comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of my comparison other 26

27 Equity Theory and Justice Equity Theory Involves a Perception of Distributive Justice Distributive Justice Perceived fairness in the distribution of outcomes. Procedural Justice Perceived fairness of the procedures used to make decisions about the distribution of outcomes (NOT distribution of outcomes) Greenberg 2008 SIOP Conference Procedural justice can substitute for distributive justice One type of justice is not necessarily more important than the other…but one must be present. 27

28 Thanks to Allah 28

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