2MotivationOrganizational BehaviourLecture No. 13Zain Ul Abideen
3Leaders are Readers Peter Drucker The Effective Executive (1967) “Morale in an organization does not mean that “people get along together”; the test is performance, not conformance.”Why are people motivated to do those things? VIDEO
4Elements of Work Motivation Direction of BehaviorWhich behaviors does aperson choose to performIn an organization?Level of EffortHow hard does a personwork to perform achosen behavior?Table 6.1 lists the elements of work motivation and provides a definition for each element and lists an example.The example for direction of behavior is “ Does an engineer take the time and effort to convince a skeptical superior of the need to change the design specifications for a new product to lower production costs?”The example for level of effort is “Does an engineer prepare a report outlining problems with the original specifications, or does the engineer casually mention the issue when he or she bumps into the supervisor in the hall and hope that the supervisor will take the advice on faith?”The example for level of persistence is “When the supervisor disagrees with the engineer and indicates that a change in specification is a waste of time, does the engineer persist in trying to get the change implemented or give up despite his or her strong belief in the need for change?”Level of PersistenceWhen faced with obstacleshow hard does a person keeptrying to perform achosen behavior successfully?
5Motivation Directly or Indirectly Dominates Organizational Behavior Personality….motivational propensitiesPsychological contractsGoal Setting TheoryO.B. ModificationCompensationSocial Identity TheoryWHY do people do what they do?What drives motivation to engage, motivation to withdraw, motivation to perform, motivation to quit?
6Discuss Motivation is rarely the core issue Abilities Job Design Tools at WorkLeadershipAll problems are not solved by having motivated employees
9Primary MotivesHuman motives are variously called physiological, biological, unlearned, or primary.Two criteria must be met in order for a motive to be included in the primary classification: It must be unlearned, and it must be physiologically based.Even though the brain pathways will be developed in different ways and people develop different appetites for the various physiological motives, they will all have essentially the same primary needs.What are some examples of Primary Motives?
10General and Secondary Motives General MotivesThe Curiosity, Manipulation, and Activity MotivesThe Affection MotiveSecondary MotivesThe Power MotiveThe Achievement MotiveThe Affiliation MotiveThe Security MotiveThe Status MotiveIntrinsic versus Extrinsic MotivesIntrinsic- Behavior for it’s own sakeExtrinsic- Based on acquisition of material or social rewards
11David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for AchievementThe drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.Need for AffiliationThe desire for friendly and close personal relationships.Need for PowerThe need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.nAchnPownAff
19Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs Valence: Value or importance placed on a particular rewardInstrumentality: Belief that performance is related to rewardsExpectancy: Belief that effort leads to performance24
20Expectancy Model of Motivation Effort(Expectancy)EffortPerformance(Instrumentality)Reward(Valence)Perceived effort–performanceprobabilityPerceivedperformance–reward probabilityPerceivedvalue of reward“If I work hard,will I get the jobdone?”“What rewardswill I get whenthe job is well done?”“What rewardsdo I value?”25
21Adams’s Theory of Inequity Inequity - the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving
22Motivational Theory of Social Exchange Negative Outcomes < Outcomes Inequity Inputs InputsPositive Outcomes > Outcomes Inequity Inputs InputsPerson ComparisonotherEquity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs19
23Strategies for Resolution of Inequity Alter the person’s outcomesAlter the person’s inputsAlter the comparison other’s outputsAlter the comparison other’s inputsChange who is used as a comparison otherRationalize the inequityLeave the organizational situation7773207
24New Perspectives on Equity Theory Equity SensitiveI prefer an equity ratio equal to that of my comparison other21
25New Perspectives on Equity Theory I am comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of my comparison otherBenevolent22
26New Perspectives on Equity Theory EntitledI am comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of my comparison other23
27Equity Theory and Justice Equity Theory Involves a Perception of Distributive JusticeDistributive JusticePerceived fairness in the distribution of outcomes.Procedural JusticePerceived fairness of the procedures used to make decisions about the distribution of outcomes (NOT distribution of outcomes)Greenberg 2008 SIOP ConferenceProcedural justice can substitute for distributive justiceOne type of justice is not necessarily more important than the other…but one must be present.