Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Citizenship and the Law"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 16 Citizenship and the Law American Civics4/8/2017Chapter 16 Citizenship and the LawSection 1: Crime in the United StatesSection 2: The Criminal Justice SystemSection 3: Juvenile CrimeChapter 16
2Section 1: Crime in the United States The Main IdeaWhen a person breaks a law, it is called a crime. There are several types of crimes and a variety of reasons why people commit crimes.Reading FocusWhat are five different types of crime?What are four possible causes of crime?How do we fight crime in the United States?
3Crimes against persons: Section 1: Crime in the United StatesCrimes against persons:Violent crimes—homicide, hate crimes, aggravated assault, or forcible rape
4Crime against property: Section 1: Crime in the United StatesCrime against property:The majority of crimesInvolves stealing or destroying property—petty larceny, grand larceny, vandalism, or arsonRobbery involves property and persons.
5Different types of crime: Section 1: Crime in the United StatesDifferent types of crime:Homicide, aggravated assault, forcible rape, larceny, vandalism, arson, robberyHate crimes—violent crimes committed because of prejudiceVictimless—gambling and sale, possession, and use of illegal drugsWhite collar—committed by people in their work; stealing, embezzlement, and fraudOrganized—a crime syndicate of career criminals; provides illegal goods and services; uses violence as a tool
7Causes of crime: Section 1: Crime in the United States Poverty Illegal drug usePermissive societyUrbanization
8Fighting crime: Section 1: Crime in the United States 1994—National crime bill includes tougher sentences and grants for police officers and new jails.Crime prevention education is taught in some schools.
9SECTION 1Question: What are the different types of crime?Types of Crimevictimless crimesorganized crimeswhite-collar crimes
10Section 2: The Criminal Justice System The Main IdeaPolice officers arrest people believed to be breaking the law. An accused person must be tried and, if found guilty, punished.Reading FocusWhat is the role of police officers in the criminal justice system?What is the function of the courts after a suspect has been arrested?How does our corrections system punish lawbreakers?
11Police Officers Section 2: The Criminal Justice System Protect life and property, prevent crime, and arrest violatorsProtect individual rights, maintain peace, and control trafficAct as peacemakers, advisers, protectors, and community members
12Police Officers (continued) Section 2: The Criminal Justice SystemPolice Officers (continued)Education, background check, aptitude tests, physical and psychological exams are required.Academies teach law, community relations, gathering evidence, arrest procedures, records keeping, first aid, weapon use, and other physical skills.
13After a suspect is arrested: Section 2: The Criminal Justice SystemAfter a suspect is arrested:Suspect is entitled to due process before questioning.Preliminary hearing—evidence evaluated and charges dropped or trial is set; bail setIndictment—a formal charge is madeArraignment—suspect makes a plea before a judgeTrial—defendant is presumed innocent; a judge presides and a jury deliberates the case presented by the prosecution and the defenseSentencing—judge decides the punishment; some states have mandatory sentences for certain crimes
15Punishing lawbreakers: Section 2: The Criminal Justice SystemPunishing lawbreakers:FinesImprisonment (People hold different views of its purpose: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, or social protection.)Parole (Early release based on good behavior; overcrowding has forced paroles.)Capital punishment (Opponents believe it violates the Eighth Amendment; it remains controversial.)
16What happens after a suspect is arrested? SECTION 2Question:What happens after a suspect is arrested?Suspect is arrestedSuspect is bookedPreliminary hearingSentencedTrialArraignmentIndictment
18Section 3: Juvenile Crime The Main IdeaMost states prefer to handle juvenile, or young, criminals differently than adult criminals, but for some crimes this practice is changing.Reading FocusWhat is juvenile crime?What are some possible causes of juvenile crime?How does the judicial system handle juveniles who break the law?What are some ways to avoid trouble with the law?Juvenile Court [02:22]
19Possible causes of juvenile crime: Section 3: Juvenile CrimePossible causes of juvenile crime:Poor home conditionsPoor neighborhood conditionsGang membershipDropping out of school and unemploymentAlcohol and drugsPeer pressure
21The judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles: Section 3: Juvenile CrimeThe judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles:Prior to late 1800s—Juveniles at least seven years old were tried in adult courts and sentenced to prison or death.1870s—Reformers argued juveniles required special understanding.Juvenile court system was set up to re-educate offenders.
22Section 3: Juvenile Crime The judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles: (continued)Hearings determine guilt or innocence of juvenile offenders.1967—Supreme Court granted juveniles the right of due process.Juveniles do not have the right to a jury trial.
24Juveniles charged and found guilty Section 3: Juvenile CrimeJuveniles charged and found guiltymay be placed in a foster home.may be sent to a corrections facility like a training school.may be given probation.may be sent to a boot camp.Juveniles charged with felonies are often tried in adult courts and punished accordingly.
25SECTION 3Question:What happens when juveniles are charged and found guilty of breaking the law?juvenile correctional facilityprobationJuvenile Punishment Optionsboot campplacement in a training school
26Chapter 16 Wrap-Up1. Identify and describe specific examples of five categories of crime.2. What are some causes of crime?3. What steps does a criminal suspect go through from the time of arrest to the time of sentencing?4. What are the punishments that a convicted criminal faces?5. What are the possible causes of juvenile delinquency?6. What may a judge do if he or she finds a juvenile guilty of a crime?