Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 State Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8 State Government American CivicsChapter 8 State GovernmentSection 1: The StatesSection 2: State LegislaturesSection 3: The State Executive BranchSection 4: State Courts
2 Section 1: The States The Main Idea In the United States, all 50 independent states fit together to form one country. The federal system allows state governments to serve the needs of the their citizens while cooperating as a united country.Reading FocusWhat powers do state governments have?How do states work together with other states and with the national government in our federal system?
3 State Powers Section 1: The States Public building programs Election oversightEducationPolice protectionPublic building programsHealth and safetyHighwaysConcurrent powers, like taxation, are exercised by both state and federal governments.
4 Components of a state constitution: Section 1: The StatesComponents of a state constitution:Preamble—states the ideals of the governmentBill of rights—list of rights guaranteed to citizensOutline of government organization—duties of the government’s branches are spelled outProvisions for electionsProvisions for managing state affairs, such as education, law and order, highways, and taxationMethods of amending the state’s constitution and list of approved amendments
5 Cooperation of states with each other and the federal government: Section 1: The StatesCooperation of states with each other and the federal government:The full faith and credit clause of the U.S. Constitution ensures states will respect court decisions of other states.Fugitives from one state are subject to extradition if found in another state.States work together to reduce pollution and maintain mutual public interests.
6 Section 1: The StatesCooperation of states with each other and the federal government: (continued)The U.S. Constitution guarantees a “republican government” to each state.The federal government must help put down “domestic violence” in the states.Governments work together to conserve resources, assist the unemployed, build highways, and offer job training.
7 Powers Reserved for the States SECTION 1Question: What types of powers are reserved for the states?Powers Reserved for the StatesStateconcurrentFederal
8 Section 2: State Legislatures The Main IdeaThe process of passing state laws is similar to the process used in the U.S. Congress. In some states, citizens can take a direct role in making the state's laws.Reading FocusHow are state legislatures organized to equally represent the citizens of the their state?How are state laws passed?How do citizens participate in making state laws?
9 Populations in state election districts: Section 2: State LegislaturesPopulations in state election districts:1964—Reynolds v. Sims: all state election districts must be as equal as possibleEqually populated districts ensure the principle of “one person, one vote.”
10 Section 2: State Legislatures Many states require similar qualifications and terms of office for state legislators:Must be U.S. citizens and residents of the district they representSenators must be at least 25 years of age, and representatives must be at least 21.Two- to four-year termsSalaries and benefits tend to be low.
11 Choosing presiding officers and carrying out legislation: Section 2: State LegislaturesChoosing presiding officers and carrying out legislation:Either the lieutenant governor or a selected official presides over the Senate.Speakers are chosen in the lower houses.Committees are appointed.Seniority determines many of the appointments.
12 Choosing presiding officers and carrying out legislation: (continued) Section 2: State LegislaturesChoosing presiding officers and carrying out legislation: (continued)State bills follow a path similar to that of federal bills before they can become laws.Some states require referendums before certain bills become laws.
13 SECTION 2 HELP WANTED L E G I S L A T O R Question: What are the qualifications and terms of office for a state legislator?HELP WANTEDL E G I S L A T O RJob qualifications include:Terms of Office:
14 Section 3: The State Executive Branch The Main IdeaA state’s executive branch carries out laws made by the state’s legislative branch. Governors are the chief executives of state government.Reading FocusWho is the state’s chief executive, and what are his or her powers and duties?Who are the other officials of state executive branches?
15 Most governors Section 3: The State Executive Branch Must be U.S. citizens who have lived in the state for a certain number of years.Must be at least 30 years old.Serve four-year terms with limits of one to two terms.
16 Duties and powers of governors include Section 3: The State Executive BranchDuties and powers of governors includeProposing laws and programs to the legislature; approving or vetoing bills.Developing state budgets.Controlling state police and militia.Appointing officials and supervising executive branch.
17 Other officials of the state executive branch, in most states: Section 3: The State Executive BranchOther officials of the state executive branch, in most states:Lieutenant governor—succeeds governor; presides over the SenateSecretary of state—keeps state records and supervises electionsAttorney general—in charge of legal businessState treasurer—supervises all state funds
18 Section 3: The State Executive Branch Other officials of the state executive branch, in most states: (continued)State auditor (comptroller)—supervises the state’s financial recordsSuperintendent of public instruction—governs local school districts and distributes state funds
19 State Executive Agencies and Officials Section 3: The State Executive BranchState Executive Agencies and OfficialsHelp the governor carry out the lawsHave specific areas of responsibility such as agriculture, justice, labor, public safety, public works, or transportationOfficials of agencies are usually appointed by the governor.Some jobs are filled through patronage.
20 Powers and Duties of the Governor SECTION 3Question: What are the powers and duties of the governor?Powers and Duties of the Governor1. Chief Legislator2. Chief ExecutivePolitical PartyLeader4. Other Powers
21 Section 4: State CourtsThe Main IdeaState court systems include lower courts, general trial courts, appeals courts, and state supreme courts.Reading FocusWhat kinds of cases do state courts handle?How is the state court system organized?How are state judges selected?
22 State courts handle Section 4: State Courts Criminal cases, which deal with violations of the law that harm individuals or society.Civil cases, which deal with disputes between individuals or business and generally involve money or property.
23 Four types of state courts and their responsibilities: Section 4: State CourtsFour types of state courts and their responsibilities:Lower courts—handle minor civil cases and misdemeanors; traffic cases, family-relations cases, and small claimsGeneral trial courts—handle major criminal and civil cases
24 Four types of state courts and their responsibilities: (continued) Section 4: State CourtsFour types of state courts and their responsibilities: (continued)Appeals courts—handle appealed cases from the lower courtsState supreme court—handles appealed cases from the appeals court
25 Overcrowding in the courts causes problems. Section 4: State CourtsOvercrowding in the courts causes problems.Calendars are often a year or more behind.People wait years for settlements.Jails are overcrowded with accused persons awaiting trial.Crowding thwarts constitutional guarantee of a speedy trial.
26 SECTION 4Question: What are the responsibilities of each of the four types of state courts?General Trial Courts:These courts hear major civil and criminal cases. Most involve a jury with a judge presiding.State CourtsLower Courts:These courts hear minor cases, including misdemeanors and civil cases involving small amounts of money. They may also handle traffic violations, family disputes, and juvenile cases.Appeals Courts:These courts hear cases on appeal, deciding if the lower court handled the trial properly and gave the accused the rights guaranteed under the Constitution.State Supreme Courts:These courts are the highest court in most states hearing cases on appeal.
27 Chapter 8 Wrap-Up1. What is the term for the powers granted to state governments, and what are some examples?2. How are the rules of state governments organized, and under what rule did they agree to cooperate with each other?3. What conditions must be met in order for someone to serve as a state lawmaker?4. How can citizens take direct action in legislation and state government?5. Who heads the state executive branch, and what does the job require?6. Who helps the governor run the state government?7. What types of courts exist in most states, and what does each do?8. How does the appeals process work?