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Chapter 16 Citizenship and the Law

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1 Chapter 16 Citizenship and the Law

2 Crime Crime costs Americans $1.7 Trillion dollars a year, about $5,800 a person Crime includes everything from shoplifting to murder

3 Types of Crime: 29 diff. types
Any act that breaks the law Criminal is any person that commits a crime Felonies are serious crimes like murder or rape Misdemeanors are minor crimes like traffic violations and disturbing the peace

4 Five main categories of crimes
1. crimes against persons 2. crimes against property 3. victimless crimes 4. white collar crime 5. organized crime

5 Crimes Against Persons
Act that harms, kills, or threatens a person 1.3 million each year 16,000 murders each year Aggravated assault most common crime 900,000 each year Hate crimes: crimes because of race, religion, or sexual orientation Forcible rape: 90,000 cases a year

6 Crimes against Property
Stealing or destroying prop. (arson) Most crimes are against property Burglary illegal entry with intent to steal, 2 million a year Larceny is theft without force, shoplifting Robbery involves both property and person, usually with a weapon

7 Victimless Crime Harms themselves: drug use, gambling
Drug use leads to other crimes

8 White Collar Crime Embezzlement: theft of money from someone you trust like bank Fraud is cheating someone out of money or property Often involves computers, hackers Identity theft

9 Organized Crime Groups provide illegal goods and services, like gambling, drug trafficking, prostitution Often they run legal businesses to hide illegal activity

10 Causes of Crime Poverty Illegal Drug Use Permissive Society
Urbanization Lack of Education

11 Fighting Crime National Crime bill of 1994 Increase Police officers
Expand prison system 3 strike rule Crime prevention

12 Review ????????? 1. How much does Crime cost each person?
2. What is a person that breaks a law called? 3. How many murders are committed each year? 4. What are crimes based on religion, race or sexual orientation?

13 Review??????? 5. What are major crimes called?
6. What are crimes like drug abuse and gambling called? 7. What are the 5 main causes of crime? 8. What did the national crime bill of 1994 do?

14 Chapter 16 Section 2 Page 388

15 Role of Police Criminal Justice System: 3 part system, police, courts, and corrections used to keep the peace

16 Duties of the Police Protecting Lives and Property Preventing Crime
Arresting people who violate the law Maintaining peace and order

17 Police Training Background checks Physical and Psychological Training
High School Graduate, some positions require college education

18 Police Arrests Probable cause: officer must have witnessed the crime or gathered enough evidence to make an arrest Arrest warrant: authorization by the court to make an arrest Due Process: Miranda Rights

19 After the Arrest Taken to police station for booking
Fingerprinted and photographed If only a misdemeanor only one fingerprint may be taken

20 From Arrest to Sentencing
Second part of the Criminal Justice System is the Court System, suspects are tried for possible crimes. Finish this sentence Innocent until __________________

21 Preliminary Hearing Judge decides if there is enough evidence to send the case to trial Judge can dismiss, or drop the charges Judge must set bail, money person, defendant, post to guarantee that they will return for trial Own Recognizance: for lesser crimes released without bail.

22 Pre. Hearing cont Depending on the seriousness of the crime, bail is set either high or low amount. What types of crime would receive high bail amounts? Low bail amounts?

23 Grand Jury and Indictment
Some states a grand jury hears the evidence and decides whether to send the case to trial. If the grand Jury finds that there is enough evidence the defendant is indicted or formally charged with the crime

24 Arraignment The defendant appears before the judge and enters a plea of guilty or not guilty. If pleads guilty no trial is needed

25 Trial The defense represents the defendant
The prosecution represents the government’s side Jurors are chosen from a large group, both lawyers can reject potential jurors

26 Trial Cont The Prosecution presents their case first
The defense presents their case second Defendant can chose whether or not to testify Lawyers ask witnesses questions In the end each lawyer makes closing statements

27 Trial Cont The Judge then tells the jury what they can and cannot consider under the law Jury leaves to deliberate, or discuss the case It is the prosecutions job to prove the defendant is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt

28 Trial Cont If there is reasonable doubt the jury must acquit the defendant, find him not guilty. If the jury cannot agree on a verdict the defendant can be tried again before a different jury

29 Sentencing If found guilty the judge decides on the punishment
Some states have mandatory punishments that judges follow

30 Plea Bargain Most cases never go to trial, they are taken care of with a plea bargain A plea Bargain is when the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser offense and the penalty is usually lighter than if a jury found them guilty

31 Punishing Lawbreakers
Corrections: Prison Parole Capital Punishment

32 Imprisonment Less serious crimes can be punished with fines or probation More serious crimes carries prison time Many prisons are overcrowded

33 Prison Some people view it as the criminal paying for their crime
Others view prison as a deterrent, something that discourages people from committing crimes Still others view it as rehabilitation, so the criminal can return to society and stay out of trouble Prisons also protect citizens from criminals

34 Parole After serving part of the their sentence a prisoner is eligible for parole, early release Parole board reviews the prisoners record and behavior while in prison People on parole have to follow certain rules and report regularly to their parole officer

35 Capital Punishment Harshest punishment Death penalty
Still debated by many

36 Review ????????? 1. What group decides if there is enough evidence to go to trial? 2. Sometimes police need this to enter a home? 3. What is the amount needed to be released from jail and promise to return for trial?

37 Review ????? 4. What is the death penalty called?
5. What is a problem that prisons are facing today? 6. What is the name of the rights that an arrested person has? 7. What is a plea bargain?

38 Chapter 16 Section 3

39 How to treat juvenile offenders
1. Punish in detention centers 2. give them counseling, treatment 3. Treat like adults

40 Juv. Crime Under 18, some states
Delinquents- juv. Found guilty of breaking a law 15% of all arrests: Arson and larceny highest amount

41 Causes of Crime 1. Poor Home Conditions Parent absent or on drugs
Parents involved in illegal activities

42 Causes cont 2. Poor Neighborhood conditions
Poor areas have higher crime rate See crime as only way out (NOT TRUE)

43 Causes cont 3. Gang Membership
No home so turn to gang to replace family 772,000 gang members in US Gangs commit crimes

44 Causes cont 4. Dropping out of school Low education = low paying job

45 Causes cont 5. Alcohol and Drugs More likely to commit crime

46 Causes cont 6. Peer Pressure
If your friends are juv. Del. Then you are more likely to commit crimes

47 Reform 1870 change how juv. Were treated
Not punishment but removal from harmful environment Re-educate and take care of 1967 In re Gault same due process as adults

48 Today Have hearing not jury Treatment or Punishment Foster Care
Correction fac. or treatment fac. For drug or alcohol abuse Boot Camps

49 Today cont Probation: time to prove they can be good citizens, must follow strict rules Counseling: get therapy and needs met

50 As Adults Many people believe if violent crime should be treated as adult 14 and older and commits a felony in most states is tried as adult Studies show that juv. That are sent to adult prison do not stay out of trouble

51 Avoiding Trouble 1. No Drug Use 2. Stay in School 3. Say No
4. Have hobbies, keep busy

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