2CrimeCrime costs Americans $1.7 Trillion dollars a year, about $5,800 a personCrime includes everything from shoplifting to murder
3Types of Crime: 29 diff. types Any act that breaks the lawCriminal is any person that commits a crimeFelonies are serious crimes like murder or rapeMisdemeanors are minor crimes like traffic violations and disturbing the peace
4Five main categories of crimes 1. crimes against persons2. crimes against property3. victimless crimes4. white collar crime5. organized crime
5Crimes Against Persons Act that harms, kills, or threatens a person1.3 million each year16,000 murders each yearAggravated assault most common crime 900,000 each yearHate crimes: crimes because of race, religion, or sexual orientationForcible rape: 90,000 cases a year
6Crimes against Property Stealing or destroying prop. (arson)Most crimes are against propertyBurglary illegal entry with intent to steal, 2 million a yearLarceny is theft without force, shopliftingRobbery involves both property and person, usually with a weapon
7Victimless Crime Harms themselves: drug use, gambling Drug use leads to other crimes
8White Collar CrimeEmbezzlement: theft of money from someone you trust like bankFraud is cheating someone out of money or propertyOften involves computers, hackersIdentity theft
9Organized CrimeGroups provide illegal goods and services, like gambling, drug trafficking, prostitutionOften they run legal businesses to hide illegal activity
10Causes of Crime Poverty Illegal Drug Use Permissive Society UrbanizationLack of Education
11Fighting Crime National Crime bill of 1994 Increase Police officers Expand prison system3 strike ruleCrime prevention
12Review ????????? 1. How much does Crime cost each person? 2. What is a person that breaks a law called?3. How many murders are committed each year?4. What are crimes based on religion, race or sexual orientation?
13Review??????? 5. What are major crimes called? 6. What are crimes like drug abuse and gambling called?7. What are the 5 main causes of crime?8. What did the national crime bill of 1994 do?
15Role of PoliceCriminal Justice System: 3 part system, police, courts, and corrections used to keep the peace
16Duties of the Police Protecting Lives and Property Preventing Crime Arresting people who violate the lawMaintaining peace and order
17Police Training Background checks Physical and Psychological Training High School Graduate, some positions require college education
18Police ArrestsProbable cause: officer must have witnessed the crime or gathered enough evidence to make an arrestArrest warrant: authorization by the court to make an arrestDue Process: Miranda Rights
19After the Arrest Taken to police station for booking Fingerprinted and photographedIf only a misdemeanor only one fingerprint may be taken
20From Arrest to Sentencing Second part of the Criminal Justice System is the Court System, suspects are tried for possible crimes.Finish this sentence Innocent until __________________
21Preliminary HearingJudge decides if there is enough evidence to send the case to trialJudge can dismiss, or drop the chargesJudge must set bail, money person, defendant, post to guarantee that they will return for trialOwn Recognizance: for lesser crimes released without bail.
22Pre. Hearing contDepending on the seriousness of the crime, bail is set either high or low amount.What types of crime would receive high bail amounts? Low bail amounts?
23Grand Jury and Indictment Some states a grand jury hears the evidence and decides whether to send the case to trial.If the grand Jury finds that there is enough evidence the defendant is indicted or formally charged with the crime
24ArraignmentThe defendant appears before the judge and enters a plea of guilty or not guilty.If pleads guilty no trial is needed
25Trial The defense represents the defendant The prosecution represents the government’s sideJurors are chosen from a large group, both lawyers can reject potential jurors
26Trial Cont The Prosecution presents their case first The defense presents their case secondDefendant can chose whether or not to testifyLawyers ask witnesses questionsIn the end each lawyer makes closing statements
27Trial ContThe Judge then tells the jury what they can and cannot consider under the lawJury leaves to deliberate, or discuss the caseIt is the prosecutions job to prove the defendant is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt
28Trial ContIf there is reasonable doubt the jury must acquit the defendant, find him not guilty.If the jury cannot agree on a verdict the defendant can be tried again before a different jury
29Sentencing If found guilty the judge decides on the punishment Some states have mandatory punishments that judges follow
30Plea BargainMost cases never go to trial, they are taken care of with a plea bargainA plea Bargain is when the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser offense and the penalty is usually lighter than if a jury found them guilty
32ImprisonmentLess serious crimes can be punished with fines or probationMore serious crimes carries prison timeMany prisons are overcrowded
33Prison Some people view it as the criminal paying for their crime Others view prison as a deterrent, something that discourages people from committing crimesStill others view it as rehabilitation, so the criminal can return to society and stay out of troublePrisons also protect citizens from criminals
34ParoleAfter serving part of the their sentence a prisoner is eligible for parole, early releaseParole board reviews the prisoners record and behavior while in prisonPeople on parole have to follow certain rules and report regularly to their parole officer
35Capital Punishment Harshest punishment Death penalty Still debated by many
36Review ?????????1. What group decides if there is enough evidence to go to trial?2. Sometimes police need this to enter a home?3. What is the amount needed to be released from jail and promise to return for trial?
37Review ????? 4. What is the death penalty called? 5. What is a problem that prisons are facing today?6. What is the name of the rights that an arrested person has?7. What is a plea bargain?
39How to treat juvenile offenders 1. Punish in detention centers2. give them counseling, treatment3. Treat like adults
40Juv. Crime Under 18, some states Delinquents- juv. Found guilty of breaking a law15% of all arrests:Arson and larceny highest amount
41Causes of Crime 1. Poor Home Conditions Parent absent or on drugs Parents involved in illegal activities
42Causes cont 2. Poor Neighborhood conditions Poor areas have higher crime rateSee crime as only way out (NOT TRUE)
43Causes cont 3. Gang Membership No home so turn to gang to replace family772,000 gang members in USGangs commit crimes
44Causes cont4. Dropping out of schoolLow education = low paying job
45Causes cont5. Alcohol and DrugsMore likely to commit crime
46Causes cont 6. Peer Pressure If your friends are juv. Del. Then you are more likely to commit crimes
47Reform 1870 change how juv. Were treated Not punishment but removal from harmful environmentRe-educate and take care of1967 In re Gault same due process as adults
48Today Have hearing not jury Treatment or Punishment Foster Care Correction fac. or treatment fac. For drug or alcohol abuseBoot Camps
49Today contProbation: time to prove they can be good citizens, must follow strict rulesCounseling: get therapy and needs met
50As AdultsMany people believe if violent crime should be treated as adult14 and older and commits a felony in most states is tried as adultStudies show that juv. That are sent to adult prison do not stay out of trouble
51Avoiding Trouble 1. No Drug Use 2. Stay in School 3. Say No 4. Have hobbies, keep busy